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NOTES from ARROWSMITH'S MAP of the DIOCESE of SARUM and WINTON, 1814

These notes are taken from the map of the Diocese of Sarum and Winton, Salisbury Diocese and Winchester Diocese, in 1535, by Aaron Arrowsmith, London, 1814. The map studied is in a private collection.
map type: HantsMap & Arrowsmith 1814
The map size is: wxh, sheet = 50x42.5cm; wxh, map = 482x392mm. The map has been folded in a zigzag pasted to a guard strip; it appears to have been taken from a book or atlas. Note that these notes are biased toward Hampshire interest.

Origins

According to the title, the map shows an assessment of the churches etc in the 26th year of the reign of Henry VIII. Henry VIII became king in 1509, in 1534 he became supreme head of the Church of England; in 1535 he appointed Thomas Cromwell as Vicar General, and Thomas Cromwell devised measures to bring the church directly under crown control.
The map is drawn in 1814. There is no authority for its data stated on the map. The map is one of 15 maps drawn by Aaron Arrowsmith and his son Samuel, for the 5 volumes of:-
Caley, J (ed) & Hunter, J, Rev (ed): 1814 (?): Ecclesiasticus, temp. Henrici VIII, auctoritate regia institutus

The map might be reproduced, in a reduced size, in:-
McClure, Edmund: (late 19th century): Historical Church Atlas: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (London)

The date and background of the map should warn against close reliance on the facts, and spellings of place names.

MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    
watermark    

Printed at the top is:-
image snip from map

Tabula _ Juxta Valorem Ecclesiasticum XXVIo. Henrici VIII. Institutum _ Geographica
which roughly translates:-
Map concerning the assessment of the church instituted in the 26th year of Henry VIII
Printed at the bottom is:-
A. Arrowsmith delin. A.D. MDCCCXIV.
which is Aaron Arrowsmith who is known to have made a, presumably similar, thematic map of the diocese of Gloucestershire and of Oxfordshire, in 1814. See:-
see:- Smith, David: 1985: Victorian Maps of the British Isles: Batsford:: ISBN 0 7134 4178 X
Lower right of the sheet there is a watermark:-
L TOVI[L] MILL / 1813

orientation    
up is N    

There is no indicator of orientation except the latitude and longitude scales. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
This is a thematic map for which orientation, scale, and coordinates are of little interest.

scale    
There is no indicator of scale. The map scale might be judged from the scale of longitude (the scales of latitude cannot be used as there is only one graduation). 1 degree longitude at 51 degrees N = 178.2 mm gives a scale 1 to 393945. The map scale is about:-
1 to 390000
6 miles to 1 inch
(At 51d N 1 min longitude = 1170.017 metres.)
The scale has been estimated for Hampshire from the position of market towns, using DISTTAB.exe software to do the calulations. From this the map scale is 1 to 394641, about:-
1 to 390000
6 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
lat and long grid    

There are scales of latitude and longitude in the map borders for a trapezoid projection; marked and labelled at 1 degree intervals. A graticule is drawn at 1 degree intervals. There are insufficient graduations on the scales to make useful calculations about the projection. Latitude cannot be measured from the map as there is only one marked parallel.
The prime meridian appears to be through Greenwich.

coast line    
coast shaded    

image snip from map

The coast line is emphasized by shading, with extra shading as a shadow to the east and south. The coast line appears to be detailed and accurate.

rivers    
Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering upstream. The Thames, larger, has form lines alongside its wiggly line to up above Abingdon. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Blackwater Riv.
Avon R.
Most of Hampshire's river systems are noticed; the Basingstoke area lacks some streams, and the Rother is missing.

county    
The map does not show counties. The area of Hampshire can be picked out as a group of deaneries in the Winchester diocese. Note that the Diocese of Winchester in 1535 included much of Hampshire, Surrey, Isle of Wight, and Guernsey. The detached part of hampshire in Sussex is clearly outlined as part of the deanery of Stoke by Guildford. The Diocese of Salisbury included much of Wiltshire and Berkshire.

diocese    
image snip from map

This is a thematic map about the diocese, deaneries and churches etc. The diocesan and deanery boundaries a re dotted lines emphasized by tints. The diocese of Winchester is tinted overall with pale pink; its diocesan boundary is emphasized by a broad pink tint; and the deanery boundaries by a narrow pink tint. The diocese is labelled, alongside:-
image snip from map

DIOC' WINTON'
ie Diocesis Wintonensis (?).
Each deanery is labelled in its area, eg:-
DECANATUS DE ANDEVOUR
DECANAT' DE FORDINGBRIG
DEC' SOUTHAMPTON
The Diocese of Salisbury id treated similarly in yellow, and is labelled:-
DIOC' SARUM.

churches    
table of symbols    

Within each deanery the churches, hospitals, and other institutions are marked by a circle with a cross atop, and labelled with name and an abbreviation for their status. Examples:-
image snip from map

Nether wallop R.
image snip from map

Froyle V.
The abbreviations are listed in a table printed lower right:-
image snip from map

NOTAE EXPLAN.
R. ... ... Rectoria
V. ... ... Vicaria
Ecc. ... Ecclesia
Lib.Cap. ... Liberia
Cap. ... Capella
Don. ... Donativa
Mon. ... Monasterium
Abb. ... Abbatia
Pr. ... ... Prioratus
Conv. ... Conventus
Coll. ... Collegium
Hosp. ... Hospitale
Dom. ... Domus
Precept. ... Preceptorium
Preb. ... Prebenda
Apr. ... Appropriata
In larger places the churches etc are listed in a table printed at the side of the map; for Hampshire there are lists for:-
image snip from map

Civitas Winton
...
and:-
SOUTHAMPTON
...


Hampshire Deaneries

The Hampshire parts of the Diocese of Winchester include the following deaneries:-
 
Basingstoke
Alton
Andevour
Somborn
Winchestre
Drokynsforde
Southampton
Fordingbrig
with
Baddysley
marked as a separate area, a preceptory.

Hampshire Towns

The map does not show settlements, but settlements are implied by many of the churches. Most of the '21' old market towns are named this way:-
 
Alton
Andevour
Basingstoke
Waltham
Christchurch Twynnh'm
Fareh'm
Fordingbrig
--- [Gosport missing]
Havant
Kyngs Clere
--- [Lymington is marked but not labelled]
Alresforde
Odih'm
--- [no Petersfield]
Portysmouth
Ringwode
Romsey
Southampton
--- [no Stockbridge]
Whitchurch
Winton

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HantsMap Notes -- ARROW1.txt
MN: 23.2.2003
last edit: 5.3.2003