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Black 1870s
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NOTES from BLACK'S TRAVELLING MAP of ENGLAND AND WALES, 1870s

  
These notes are taken from the Road and Railway Travelling Map of England, including England and Wales, engraved by S Hall, Bury Street, London, published by A and C Black, Edinburgh, Lothian, early 1870s. The map studied is in a private collection.
map type: HantsMap & Black 1870s
The map size is: wxh, folded in cover = 12x15cm; wxh, sheet = 66.5x87cm; wxh, map = 570x820mm. The map is colour printed, presumably engraved linework and lithograph colour. It is sectioned for folding, 6x6 pieces, mounted, and folded in a cloth covered card cover. The linen is in poor condition.
Remember that detail notes will be made about Hampshire, and features of the rest of the map might be ignored.

MAP FEATURES

plain cartouche    
title cartouche    
map maker    
engraver    

Embossed in gold on the dark green cover is:-
BLACK'S ROAD & RAILWAY TRAVELLING MAP OF ENGLAND 4s. 6d.
illustrated with a 2-2-2 railway locomotive and a stage coach. Printed in a plain cartouche, in a decorative font is:-
ENGLAND AND WALES
and printed at the bottom:-
Edinburgh, Published by A. & C. Black. / Engraved by S Hall, Bury Str. Bloomsbury

table of symbols    
A few symbols are explained, below the title cartouche, upper right:-
Railways in operation are distinguished thus [bold line, cross lines for a] Station
Lines in progress of construction, or which have received the sanction of Parliament [double line, shaded]

orientation    
up is N    

The map has no compass rose, it is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line    
scale    

Printed below the title cartouche, upper right, is a scale of:-
English Miles
chequered in 5 then 10 miles intervals, labelled at 5, 10, 20, etc. The 50 miles = 88.8 mm gives a scale 1 to 906162. The map scale is about:-
1 to 900000
14 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
lat and long grid    

Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a conical projection; chequered in 10 minute intervals, labelled at degrees. The bottom longitude scale is labelled:-
Longitude East from Greenwich
to the right of the prime meridian.
The map includes from about 1d 30m E to 5d 40m W, from 49d 40m to 56d 10m N; the whole of England and Wales, with southern Scotland in outline, and part of the coast of France.

sea area    
sea tinted    

The sea are is tinted blue, fading to uncoloured far from land. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
ENGLISH CHANNEL
The Solent
Spithead

coast line    
The coast line has a red tint, because it is a county boundary.
Some headlands are noticed, eg:-
Hurst Pt.
Hampshire's harbours are all recognisable, but not labelled.

coastal defence    
castles    

Little of Hampshire's coastal defences are shown. Just:-
Calshot Ca.

rivers    
Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering inland. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Avon R.
R. Itchen
In Hampshire the following rivers can be recognised: River Stour, River Avon, Avon Water, Lymington River, Beaulieu River, Rivers Test, Dun, Anton, and Dever, River Itchen and Candovers Stream, River Hamble, River Meon, Wallington River, River Rother, two parts of the River Wey, Blackwater River, River Hart, Rivers Loddon, Lyde, etc, and the River Enborne. This is all the major rivers and some tributaries.

relief    
hill hachuring    

Relief is indicated by hill hachuring. In Hampshire this does not give a reliable picture of the shape of the county. A narrow ridge is part of the South Downs, extending west from the end of that there is an escarpment which looks to be facing the wrong way. Etc. It is not convincing.

forests    
Woodland is not indicated. But, in Hampshire, the:-
NEW FOREST
is labelled as an area.

county    
County boundaries are a dotted line tinted with a continuous red line. County areas are labelled, eg:-
HAMPSHIRE OR SOUTHAMPTON
Each county is coloured a different colour. For example: Hampshire and Isle of Wight yellow, Dorset green, Wiltshire orangey red, Berkshire green, Surrey orangey red, Sussex pinky red. Elsewhere a grey blue is used. Thus at least five colours, two of which are badly similar.

settlements    
Settlements are marked by a circle, perhaps with added elements, differentiated by style of lettering.
city     circle, plus four arms as if the circle overlays a plus sign; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
WINCHESTER

town     circle, perhaps with four arms as if the circle overlays a plus sign; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
Lymington [with cross]
Alton [without cross]
The spellings of the placenames of the '21' market towns are listed below.

village    
hamlet    
circle; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
E. Worldham
Upper Wallop


roads    
Roads are drawn by a double or single line, for greater and lesser roads. Some of the main routes have one of the two lines bold; this is a convention used to mark more important routes, like post routes, or turnpikes, on earlier maps. In Hampshire the London to Lands End road, the London to Southampton and thence to Poole road, and the London to Portsmouth road are distinguished in this way.
Although the cover title says this is a road and rail map, it is apparent that railways are a prior interest.

railways    
Railways are marked by a bold line. Cross lines are used to mark the position of a station, as explained in the table of symbols. Hampshire has no lines 'in progress'. In Hampshire the following lines can be recognised, in date order:-
London and Southampton Railway, 1840
Bishopstoke to Gosport branch railway 1842
Chichester to Portsmouth branch railway 1847
Southampton and Dorchester Railway 1847
Berkshire and Hampshire Railway 1848
Reading, Guildford and Reigate Railway 1849
Farnham to Alton branch railway 1852
Basingstoke and Salisbury Railway 1857
Lymington Railway 1858
Portsmouth Railway 1859
Bishops Waltham Railway 1863
Petersfield Railway 1864
Andover and Redbridge Railway 1865
Mid Hants, Alton Lines, Railway 1865
Salisbury and Dorset Junction Railway 1866
Southampton and Netley Railway 1866 (NOT the extension to Fareham 1889)
Ringwood, Christchurch and Bournemouth Railway 1862 and 1870
The names are those used in the directory of railways in the Old Hampshire Gazetteer, with the dates of opening.
The Hayling Railway 1867 and Stokes Bay Railway 1863 are missing, otherwise all railways up to 1870 are shown. The Didcot, Swindon and Southampton Railway, authorised in 1873, is not shown as a line in progress. Allowing for mistakes it seems the map dates from the period 1870-75.

canals    
In Hampshire the:-
Basingstoke Canal
is drawn by a bold curvy line, and labelled.


Hampshire Towns

The '21' market towns in Hampshire are all shown spelled as follows:-
 
Alton
Andover
Basingstoke
Bishops Waltham
Christ Church
Fareham
Fordingbridge
Gosport
Havant
Kingsclare (spelling mistake?)
Lymington
Alresford
Odiham
Petersfield
Portsmouth
Ringwood
Romsey
Southampton
Stockbridge
Whitchurch
Winchester
The 'Kingsclare' is probably just a spelling mistake?

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HantsMap Notes -- BLACK1.txt
MN: 7.10.2003
last edit: 7.10.2003