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Cary 1787
to 1st map described 


These notes are made from a map of Hampshire published by John Cary, engraver and map seller, Strand, London, 1793, an edition of his map published 1787. The item studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1998.214
map type: HantsMap & Cary 1787


title cartouche    
map maker    
compass rose    

Printed lower right is a simple cartouche laid across the compass rose a device that John Cary uses elsewhere. The map title is:-
Below the compass rose is:-
By JOHN CARY, Engraver.
Printed at the bottom is:-
London Published Jan 1st. 1793 by J. Cary, Engraver & Mapseller, Strand
The compass rose has no circle. It has star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, and lines for the false points. North is marked by a fleur de lys.

scale line    

Printed lower right is a scale line:-
British Statute Miles 69 1/2 to a Degree.
The scale line is chequererd and labelled in miles; length 10 miles = mm, giving a map scale 1 to . The map scale is about:-
1 to
miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    

In the map border are rectangular latitude and longitude scales; chequered at 1 minute intervals, labelled at 5 minute intervals. The bottom longitude scale is labelled:-
Longitude Wst. from London
minutes of latitude = mm, gives a map scale of 1 to . The map scale is about:-
1 to
miles to 1 inch
Cary is the first to use longitude west from the Greenwich meridian, which was not formally established as the international prime meridian till 1884.

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
Christchurch Bay

coast line    
coast form lines    

The coast is emphasised by form lines which extend into river estuaries and harbours. Some headlands are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
And some harbours, eg:-
Portsmouth Harbour

coastal defence    

Some of the old coastal defence castles are labelled - no symbol:-
Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
St. Andrew's Castle
The fortifications of Portsmouth are shown, just.


Rivers are drawn as wiggly lines tapering inland from their estuary. Baridin might be shown, and the river might be labelled, eg:-
Avon R.
Beauley River
Crockford Water
Auborn Riv
Bourne River
This Bourne is the River Bourne by South Tidworth.
Higher up the Test the tributary now known as the Bourne Rivulet is labelled the Anton, the Anton running into Andover is unnamed, and the head of the river is labelled:-
Source of the Hanton Riv.
between Ashe and Steventon.
Ponds are drawn in outline with form lines, and perhaps labelled, eg:-
Fleet Pond
Sowley Pond
Blackmore Pond
This last near Bramshott.
Bridges are suggested by the roads crossing and interupting a river. A few bridges are named, eg:-
Broken Bridge [near Brokenhurst]
Our Br.
Kitcomb Bridge [by Fullerton]
A ford is labelled at:-
Jouldins Ford
north of Eversley.

No relief is shown. But a few hills are labelled, eg:-
Tidbury Hill
Ports Down


Groups of trees and bushes are drawn with doted areas to suggest undergrowth, to indicate woodland, in park grounds or woods or forests. These might be labelled, eg:-
Holt Forest
Watmere Forest

Parks are drawn in outline with a ring of fence palings. The park usually contains a house, and might be labelled, eg:-
Hackwood Park
Burley Lodge

The county boundary is a bold dotted line. This extends across the map borders in places. The detached part of Hampshire in West Sussex is not shown. Adjacen counties are labelled, eg:-
and the boundary between these counties drawn for a short way from the Hapmshire boundary by a dotted line.
A few places outside the county are drawn and labelled to make sense of Hampshire places, eg Farnham, Lopcombe Corner, Ludgershall, etc.

Hundreds are not shown.


Blocks and groups of blocks on roads are used to mark the larger settlements, perhaps with a cross (+) indicating a church. In bigger towns the blocks make a street plan. Smaller places are marked by a drawing of a church or a house. Places are graded by their labelling.
city     groups of blocks on a street plan; labelled in upright block caps, eg:_
The relationship of streets, rivers, roads, etc is visible in some detail though miniature.

town     groups of blocks on a street plan; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
A town might have one or two starts or asterisks attached to it by a line which presumably indicate the number of members it sends to Parliament.

village     drawing of a church; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-

drawing of a building, a house; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
Wyatts [a house? W of Alton]
Durham Fa. [near Maple Durham]
Lowr Farm [NW of Exton]
A hamlet on a road might be marked by a small group of blocks, eg:-
Lower Froyle

Roads are clearly drawn on the map by a double line, graded into two widths, the major roads having bold+light lines. The network of roads is extensive. The major roads include some but not all of the 'Ogilby' routes and shows routes which are now deemed to be significant.
Major roads crossing the county boundary have their destination, or start, labelled, eg:-
from Salisbury
4 Miles from Amesbury
to Newbury
Miles from Hyde Park Corner London R
to London thro' Guildford

Looking closely you will see little lowercase letters labelling the major roads at the county boundary. These are grouped by county.
Dorset border    
a     Christchurch - Poole

b     Ringwood - Poole

c     Ringwood - Wool Bridge, west

Wiltshire border    
a     Fordingbridge - Salisbury

b     Cadnam - Salisbury

c     Southampton, Ower - Salisbury

d     Romsey - Salisbury

e     Stockbridge or Andover - Lopcombe Corner and Salisbury

f     Andover - Amesbury and west

g     Andover - Ludgershall, Devizes

Berkshire border    
a     Andover, Highclere - Newbury

b     Whitchurch - Newbury

c     Kingsclere - Aldermaston, Reading

Basingstoke - Reading

f     Basingstoke - Reading

Surrey border    
a     Petersfield - Guildford; London

b     Farnham to Guildford or Bagshot; London

c     at Frimley - Bagshot; London

d     at Blackwater - Bagshot; London

West Sussex border    
a     Liphook - across Sussex, Guildford

[b]     Havant - Chichester

Perhaps these label joins of these major roads to their continuation on the relevant other county map. These letters are not printed on the 1787 edition of the map.
A few junctions are named, eg:-
3 Leg Cross [S of Hghclere]
Lopcombe Corner [in Wiltshire]
A few roads have names, eg:
Chute Causeway
Popham Lane
Gravel Hill
Bradley Lane
New Road
This last from near Eling towards Lyndhurst.
A label in the Lands End Road at Church Oakley:-
Dean Gate
may be a turnpike gate?
Route diagram:-
see:- CY13RTE.txt

Ogilby routes     25/26, the Lands End Road, is shown.
30, the Portsmouth Road, is shown.
32, from Andover towards the west, is shown.
39, the branch from Midhurst to Winchester, now shown only by minor roads.
51, the Southampton Road, but no longer the same route, Cary shows the main route through Winchester not Twyford, the older route is shown by mminor roads.
53, Basingstoke to Salisbury, is shown.
81, Oxford to Chichester, is not shown as a contnuous route though it is all shown by a mixture of major and minor roads.
83, Oxford to Salisbury, shown by only by minor roads.
97, various parts still appear as major roads, but the route from Christchurch to Lymington is now only a minor road.

new routes     Some of the new routes worth noticing are (not always quite direct):-
Winchester, Whitchurch, Newbury.
Alton, Bishops waltham, Wickham, Fareham, Gosport.
Southampton, Wickham, Cosham, Havant, Chichester.
Salisbury, Fordingbridge, Ringwood, Christchurch.
Winchester, Stockbridge, Salisbury.

road distances    
A few of the main roads have distances from London, or from their start, marked every mile along their route:-
[Bagshot], Blackwater 31, Hartford Bridge 36, Basingstoke 47, Whitchurch 58, Andover 65, [Middle Wallop] 72, [Salisbury]. (Ogilby 25/26).
..., Liphook 47, Petersfield 55, Horndean 62, Cosham 68, Portsmouth [ ]. (Ogilby 30).
Andover 35, [Weyhill], Ludgershall, [Devizes].
[Bagshot], Farnham 38, Alton 48, Alresford 57, Winchester 65, Southampton [ ]. (partly Ogilby 51).
Basingstoke 46, Wheatsheaf 52 1/2, Sutton Scotney 60 1/2, Stockbridge 68, Lopcombe Corner 74 1/2, [Salisbury]. (Ogilby 53).
[Reading], Basingstoke 14 1/2.
Winchester 66, Romsey 76, Ringwood 94, [Poole].
Southampton 0, Romsey 8, [Salisbury].
These were presumably regarded as more important routes.


water mills    

A number of water mills are shown, usually just by a label, with a symbol. The map would repay a study to locate its record of old mills. For example, up the River Test are:-
Great Bri Mill [N of Romsey]
Mill [top of Lockerley Brook]
Overshot Watering Mill [at Lower Wallop]
Mill [at Stockbridge]
I have not noticed any windmills.


At Bursledon, by the river, is labelled:-
marking an important dockyard.

North of Gravel Hill on the Portsmouth Road, about 50 miles from London, is:-

roman roads    
roman towns    

Roman roads are clearly marked and labelled:-
Roman Road from Old Sarum
Port Way
Roman Road [Winchester towards Silchester]
Icknield Way
It would be worth comparing these claims with what is accepted nowadays.
Silchester has its roman town marked by a ring of ?hatching with a central block.

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HantsMap Notes -- CARY9.txt
MN: 1.12.2000
last edit: 17.5.2003