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Cassell, Petter and Galpin 1860s
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NOTES from CASSELL, PETTER AND GALPIN'S MAP of the LSWR, 1860s

FA1998.226  
These notes are taken from a map of the London and South Western Railway, published by Cassell, Petter and Galpin, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Hill, London, 1860s? The map studied is one of a group of similar railway maps in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1998.226.
map type: HantsMap & Cassell, Petter and Galpin 1860s
The map size is: wxh, sheet = 52.5x70.5cm. The sheet has 5 separate maps of the LSWR system, fitted together within on the page. The maps are not strip maps, but ordinary topographical maps based on a length of railway line. These notes concentrate upon Hampshire interest, and may ignore features outside the county.
Areas of overlap of maps might be shown by a vague boundary line. For example, on the map for 'Southampton to Weymouth' an area around Southampton Water has a rectangular segment outlined, which is plotted in more detail in the 'Salisbury Junction to Southampton' map.

MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    
publisher    

Printed at the top of the sheet is:-
LONDON & SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY.
Each of the railway maps on the sheet has its own title:-
FROM LONDON TO BASINGSTOKE
FROM SALISBURY JUNCTION TO SOUTHAMPTON
CONTINUATION of SALISBURY BRANCHES
CONTINUATION of PORTSMOUTH & GOSPORT BRANCHES
FROM SOUTHAMPTON TO WEYMOUTH
These include railway routes in Hampshire from London via Basingstoke, Winchester, to Southampton; branch to Gosport and Portsmouth, including Fareham; line via Whitchurch, Andover, to Salisbury, Wiltshire; branch via Romsey; line and branches to Lymington, Ringwood, into Dorset; plus other branches and connecting lines.
Printed at the bottom is:-
Note / The Direct Portsmouth; & the Salisbury & Exeter Lines will be given in future Maps; for the London & Windsor Line (complete) see the Double Map of the Thames &c. already published.
LONDON, PUBLISHED BY CASSELL, PETTER & GALPIN, LA BELLE SAUVAGE YARD, LUDGATE HILL, E.C.
and sheet number '19'.

orientation    
up is NW    
up is NE    
up is start    

Each map has a north point (or very simplified compass rose); N-S line, E-W cross line, short lines for the half cardinal directions, North marked by an arrow.
The orientation of each map is suited to the length of railway shown; start of the segment at the top, finish at the bottom. In practical terms this puts NE or NW at the top of a map. Up is judged by the labelling. One of the maps is printed sideways on the sheet to get it fitted in.

scale    
The maps have no indicator of scale. They all look to be the same scale. An estimate of scale could be got from the mile marks along the railways - a good section to measure would be the straight stretch from Farnborough to Basingstoke, mile 33 to mile 49. The map scale is roughly:-
1 to 120000
2 miles to 1 inch.

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea areas are plain; some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
SPITHEAD
Stoke's Bay
SOUTHAMPTON WATER

coast line    
foreshore    
headlands    
harbours    
islands    

The maps include a few stretches of Hampshire coast. The coast line is unemphasised.
Foreshore areas might be outlined by a dotted line.
Some headlands are labelled, eg:-
Gilkicker Pt.
The major harbours are labelled:-
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
Langston Harbour
In the harbours the channels, shallows, islands are shown, and perhaps labelled, eg:-
Horsea I.
Porchester Lake

rivers    
bridges    
ponds    

Rivers are drawn by a double line where broad, the Thames in London for example, and by a wiggly line tapering upstream where narrow. Braiding might be shown, as north of South Stoneham on the Itchen. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Loddon R.
R. Itchin
The Anton or Test R.
Bridges are not particularly noticed but are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream.
A pond might be drawn in outline and labelled, eg:-
Fleet Pond
which is crossed by the railway. Three small ponds are drawn near Basingstoke, labelled:-
Newram Springs

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

The maps do not include the whole coast of Hampshire, but various features of the coastal defences of the county are shown, castles, fortifications, and related features. On Southampton water:-
Netley Castle
Victoria Hospital
and in the Portsmouth area:-
Barracks [on Stokes Bay]
Ft. Monkton [fortification]
Haslar Hospital
[fortification around Gosport]
Royal Clarence Yard
Burrow Fort
Priddys Hard [fortification]
Magazine [near Hilsea]
[fortification around naval dockyard]
[fortification around Portsmouth]
S. Sea Castle
Hilsea Redoubt
None of the great forts around the Portsmouth area are noticed - or allowed to be noticed?

relief    
hill hachuring    

A limited amount of relief is indicated by hill hachuring. It is so limited as to be misleading. The significant, to building the railway, hills between basingstoke and Winchester are not indicated at all, except that there is a 'tunnel', only one, enroute. Something of relief might be deduced from some labels, eg:-
Popham Beacon
Thorney Down
Worthy Down
At Portsmouth the prominent ridge of:-
Portsdown Hill
is drawn by hachures and labelled.
Near Basingstoke there is a hill with a hillfort at Winklebury.

woods    
forests    

There are some groups of little tree symbols to mark woods, which might be labelled, eg:-
Crab Wood
Micheldever Wood
NEW FOREST
Hare Wood Forest
There might be a label without symbols, eg:-
Knight Wood [near Chandlers Ford]

parks    
Some parks are drawn in outline, the interior dotted, perhaps marked with roads or drives, and a building. A park might be labelled by name, or name of its house, eg:-
Dogmersfield Park
Tilney Hall
Hackwood Park

county    
A county boundary might be drawn by a dot dash line, but is not always noticed. The county areas are labelled in large open block caps, eg:-
HAMPSHIRE

settlements    
Settlements are shown by groups of blocks, bigger places, more blocks, differentiated by style of lettering.
city    
town    
group of blocks, no attempt to make a street plan; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
WINCHESTER
PORTSMOUTH
SOUTHAMPTON

town     group of blocks; labelled in italic block caps, eg:-
WHITCHURCH
LYMINGTON

village     some blocks; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
Upper Wallop
Hurstbourne Priors

hamlet     a block or two; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
Middle Wallop
Upr. Sombourn
This style of lettering is used for other features on the map. Differentiation between villages and hamlets is not sure.


roads    
Roads are drawn by double lines, solid or dotted presumable indicating fenced and unfenced roads. There are broader roads, with one line slightly bolder, and narrower roads in the network.

railways    
Railways are the subject of the maps. Railways are drawn by a double line with cross lines; some lines are in broken stretches, presumably lines still being built. Lines are labelled. Stations are marked by a spot, generally labelled:-
Sta.
Lines shown in Hampshire are listed below (lines outwith the county ignored). Some are shown on separate sheets, and labelled more than once. The railways are listed under their original name; the labelling reflects the way the various routes were considered by the LSWR at this later date.
London and Southampton Railway     1840
LONDON & SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY / LONDON & SOUTHAMPTON BRANCH

Bishopstoke to Gosport branch railway     1842
GOSPORT JUNCTION RAILWAY
PORTSMOUTH BRANCH

Chichester to Portsmouth branch railway     1847
PORTSMOUTH, CHICHESTER & BRIGHTON RAILWAY

Eastleigh to Salisbury branch railway     1847
SALISBURY BRANCH RAILWAY

Southampton and Dorchester Railway     1847
SOUTHAMPTON & DORCHESTER RAILWAY
LONDON & SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY / SOUTHAMPTON & DORCHESTER BRANCH

Berkshire and Hampshire Railway     1848. Great Western Railway.
BASINGSTOKE & READING BRANCH

Fareham to Cosham branch railway     1848 Labelled on Gosport branch part.
PORTSMOUTH BRANCH

Reading, Guildford and Reigate Railway     1849.
SOUTH EASTERN RAILY. READING & REIGATE BRANCH

Farnham to Alton branch railway     1852
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY. ALTON BRANCH

Basingstoke and Salisbury Railway     1857
ANDOVER & SALISBURY BRANCH

Lymington Railway     1858. Unlabelled branch from outside Brockenhurst, to Lymington

Ringwood, Christchurch and Bournemouth Railway     1862. Only as far as Christchurch, unlabelled.

Stokes Bay Railway and Pier Co     1863. Unlabelled branch from outside Gosport to Stokes Bay.

Bishops Waltham Railway     Dotted line, unlabelled, from a junction at Botley, through Bishops Waltham. Opened 1863.

Andover and Redbridge Railway     Dotted line, unlabelled, from Redbridge through Romsey running north; not shown at Andover. Opened 1865.

Mid Hants, Alton Lines, Railway     Dotted line, unlabelled, from a junction near Headbourn Worthy, running east. Dotted line running south west from Alton. Opened 1865.

Salisbury and Dorset Junction Railway     Dotted line, unlabelled, from junction west of Salisbury, running south. Opened 1866.

The railways shown suggest a date for the map about 1863.


Hampshire Towns

The maps do not include the whole of the county. But it is interesting to see which of the old '21' market towns in the county are shown, and which has a railway station:-
 
Alton [station]
Andover [station]
Basingstoke [station]
Bishops Waltham [line being built]
Christ Church [station]
Fareham [station]
-
Gosport [station]
-
-
Lymington [station]
-
Odiham [not on railway]
-
Portsmouth [station]
Ringwood [station]
Romsey [station]
Southampton[ station]
-
Whitchurch [station]
Winchester [station]

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HantsMap Notes -- CASSELL1.txt
MN: 20.8.2003
last edit: 23.8.2003