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Cruchley 1856
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NOTES from CRUCHLEY'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1856

FA1999.91  
These notes are made from the map of Hampshire, including the Christchurch area, Dorset and the Isle of Wight, published by G F Cruchley, London, 1856. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1999.91
The map includes the Isle of Wight; the notes are about Hampshire, and the part of Dorset that was then Hampshire, only.
map type: HantsMap & Cruchley 1856
The map size is: wxh, sheet, unfolded = 50.5x57.5cm; wxh, map = 482x547mm.

MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    

Printed on the map lower right is:-
image snip from map

CRUCHLEY'S RAILWAY & TELEGRAPHIC MAP OF HAMPSHIRE Showing all the RAILWAYS & NAMES OF STATIONS, ALSO THE TELEGRAPH LINES & STATIONS, Improved from the ORDNANCE SURVEYS. LONDON. PUBLISHED BY G. F. CRUCHLEY, MAP-SELLER & GLOBE MAKER, 81, FLEET STREET.
in a restrained riot of fonts.
Printed on the map cover in black on yellow:-
CRUCHLEY'S RAILWAY AND TELEGRAPHIC County Map of HAMPSHIRE. N.B. These excellent County Maps, larger and superior to any other for Railway Travelling, are offered to the Public at SIXPENCE EACH, the price at which the most inferior County Maps are sold. The names of all the Railways and Stations are inserted on these Maps, likewise the Companies to which they belong. SIXPENCE COLOURED. N.B. Sent Postage Free on Receipt of Seven Stamps. G. F. CRUCHLEY, Map Publisher and Globe Manufacturer, 81, FLEET STREET. SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS & RAILWAY STATIONS.

orientation    
up is N    

The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line    
scale    

At the lower left is a scale line in a shaded cartouche:-
image snip from map

SCALE
The scale line is chequered in miles, 10 miles = 93.3mm, gives a scale of 1 to 172491 assuming a statute mile, ie the map scale is about:-
1 to 170000
3 miles to 1 inch
The latitude scale provides another indicator of scale. 40 minutes of latitude = 413 mm gives a scale 1 to 179691. The map scale is about:-
1 to 180000
3 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
scale    

image snip from map

Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a rectangular projection; chequered at 1 minute intervals, labelled at 5 minute intervals and degrees. The bottom border is labelled:-
Longitude West from London

table of symbols    
Printed upper left is a table of symbols:-
image snip from map

EXPLANATION
Chief Places of County Election [maltese cross with a dot and arrow]
Polling Places [maltese cross]
Boroughs returning Two Members [2 asterisks attached to place symbol]
Boroughs returning One Member [1 asterisk attached to place symbol]
Boundaries of Boroughs [dashed line]
Division of Counties [dot dash line]
RAILWAYS & NAMES OF STATIONS [very bold line, double dotted line labelled TUNNEL, large dot and station name in block caps]
TELEGRAPH LINES & STATIONS [hatching added to railway line and station dot]
RAILWAYS IN PROGRESS [very bold dotted line]
This clearly takes many symbols used on the map for granted, conventional and familiar to the intended users. The symbols remarked are for electoral data which is still relatively new since the Reform Act 1832 and subsequent acts, and for railways and telegraphs which are the very latest thing.

sea plain    
sandbanks    
foreshore    
rocks    
sea marks    
lighthouses    
islands    
buoys    
wrecks    

The sea is plain. Some areas are labelled, eg:-
ENGLISH CHANNEL
CHRISTCHURCH BAY
THE SOLENT
SPITHEAD
Foreshore mud or sand flats and sandbanks are drawn with a dotted line and might be labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Bramble
Middle
Horse Sand
Spit Bank
Rocks are shown on the Shingles by little Xs.
image snip from map

SHINGLES
A conical buoy is drawn and labelled:-
image snip from map

Royal George
marking the wreck of this ship which was a hazard to navigation, removed later in the century.
A sea mark is shown by labelling, only:-
Jack in the Basket
and there is a:-
Light Ho.
indicated on Hurst Spit.
Some of the smaller islands are shown within Portsmouth and Langstone Harbours, some labelled, eg:-
Horsea I.
Whale I.

coast line    
coast shaded    
harbours    
shipyards    
headlands    
coast appearance    

image snip from map

The coast line is emphasised by shading. A variety of coastal features are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury or Christchurch Head
Stans Ore Point
At a few places there is an attempt to show the coast appearance; for instance, indication of low cliffs between Browndown Point and Titchfield Haven:-
image snip from map

Harbours are noticed and labelled, but the name is sometimes implied by the nearby place as at Christchurch where is:-
Haven
Titchfd. Haven
Langston Harbour
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
which also has:-
image snip from map

Dock Yard
There is another
Dock Yard
at Buckler's Hard on the Beaulieu River.

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

The coastal defences about the Solent are marked; both the Henry VIII castles and more modern fortifications:-
image snip from map

Hurst Cas.
Calshot Cas.
Netley castle
Browndown Fort
Fort Monkton
Block H.
South Sea castle
Forts (on Southsea shore)
Cumberland Ft.
Southsea Castle's symbol looks a bit like a square with buttresses, but the symbols are not particularly distinctive.
Fortifications are shown by zigzag lines, suggestive, but no better, of polygonal artillery style fortifications, at Gosport, Portsmouth and Portsmouth dockyard:-
image snip from map

and all along the north shore of Portsea Island, labelled:-
The Li[n]es

rivers    
ponds    
bridges    
fords    

image snip from map

Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering inland from their estuaries which have shading continued in from the coast. Broader parts of rivers are drawn with a double line. A few rivers are labelled, eg:-
Avon R
Crockford Water [east of Boldre]
Blackwater River
Ex or Beaulieu River
Dark Water [near Stans Ore Point]
Some of the river names are less common on other maps. An upper part of the Test, about Whitchurch, is labelled:-
Anton R
but so is the tributary of the Test from Andover. The tributary usually called the Bourne Rivulet, through St Marty Bourne, is labelled:-
Test R.
Just what firm test can be used to determine which branch at a junction is the tributary and which the main stream!
Braiding is drawn, for example at Breamore on the Avon. And all the river systems are drawn with many tributaries.
Some ponds are marked, and might be labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Woolmer Pond
Gomer Pond (near Browndown)
The pond at Alresford is drawn but not labelled. Two ponds are shown at Fleet, named only by the adjacent:-
FLEET POND STATION
on the railway.
A pond might be shaded, as at Woolmer, or not, as at Alresford.
Bridges are mostly indicated by a road interrupting a river. Some are named, eg:-
image snip from map

Avon Bri. [over the Avon at Avon]
Iford Br.
Kitcomb Br [near Leckford]
Other bridges are suggested by place names, such as Fordingbridge, Stockbridge, Horse Bridge Station, etc. There is a gap in the river drawn at:-
image snip from map

Palmers Ford

relief    
hill hachuring    

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Relief is indicated by hill hachuring, with several of the hills or groups of hills labelled, eg:-
Borroughclere Hill
Weavers Hill [NE of Liss]
Winchester Hill [Old Winchester Hill]
Portsdown Hill
Quarley Mount
Mount Pleasant [N of Sherfield English]
Duckholt Hills
where Buckholt Forest should be marked and labelled.
Again there are place names on this map which may not occur on other maps.
Other hill names might be impied by settlement names, Filmer Hill for instance.

beacons    
Beacons are no longer an important feature of the landscape, but some of the old beacon locations are remembered in hill names, eg:-
image snip from map

Beacon Hill [by Dibden, the Hythe Beacon]
Beacon Hill [N of Farley]

woods    
forests    
trees    
vegetation    
commons    

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Woods and forests are marked by group of tree symbols, some labelled, eg:-
Faccombe Wood
Dole Wood
NEW FOREST
FOREST of BERE [East Bere Forest]
Alice Holt Forest
WOOLMER FOREST
which last has no trees, a reminder that 'forest' is a hunting area rather then a lot of trees.
There is a:-
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Boundary Tree
marked as a single tree south of Dibden in the New Forest area. There are the:-
image snip from map

Half Moon Trees
marked as a small group east of Paulton Park.
A number of downs, commons, heaths, etc are labelled, eg:-
Beaulieu Heath
Arnwood Common
Easton Down [E of Winchester]
Waltham Chace
Longwood Warren
Some of the common areas are marked by pecking plus small bush symbols. This is also used for undergrowth in some woodland areas of East Bere Forest and is all that is marked for Woolmer Forest.

parks    
Parks are drawn by an outline with upright fence palings. These include more than the ancient formally emparked areas. Most of the parks enclose a house; some have trees and other vegetation. Their shapes and sizes attempt to represent the extent of the estate. Labelling is in lowercase italic text, eg:-
image snip from map

Husborn Park
Bramshill Park
Tangier

county    
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The county boundary is a dashed line, except where a river or the sea coast takes over the function. (The boundary between the electoral 'County Divisions', north and south Hampshire, is a dot dash line, as shown in the table of symbols.) The county boundary is tinted because it is also a division boundary.
The boundaries between adjacent counties are irregular, some shown, eg Wiltshire/Dorset, some not, eg Surrey/West Sussex. The detached part of Wiltshire north of Silchester is drawn. The detached part of Hampshire in West Sussex is not drawn.
Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
WILT SHIRE

hundreds    
image snip from map

Hundred boundaries are dotted lines. The hundred names are in large light block caps across the map, eg:-
WHERWELL HD.
ALTON HUNDRED
PART OF ODIHAM H.

boroughs    
image snip from map

The table of symbols gives a fine dashed line for borough boundaries. These are not prominent among all the other detail on the map; and remember that the map postdates the Reform Act 1832 and other reforms, that some old boroughs are no more. The boundaries around Winchester and Lymington, for example, are easy to see; that round Andover is less easy, or absent.

settlements    
streets    
electoral data    

Settlements are shonw by blocks or groups of blocks representing buildings, along roads and streets. In the larger places these make a street plan of sorts. The parish church, or other, even a cathedral, is shown by a drawing of a church symbol, building and tower. Places are graded by the amount of building and their text labels.
city     A city is drawn by groups of blocks along streets, the cathedral drawn by building and tower; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER [maltese cross and arrow, square, two stars]
This city has other churches as well, named, eg:-
St Cross
St Giles
Winchester has a maltese cross and arrow indicating that it is a Chief Place of County Election (so is Southampton) and has two asterisks indicating that it returns two members to Parliament. The borough boundary is a dashed line.

town     A town is drawn the same way as a as a city. For example, Southampton has all the features that Winchester has.
A smaller town is shown by blocks grouped on streets making a street plan, plus a church shown by a building with a tower; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

ALTON
This town has a maltese cross to show that it is a Polling Place.

village     A village is shown by a scatter of blocks along roads, plus a church drawn by building and tower; labelled in upright lowercase, eg:-
image snip from map

Selbourn
There might not be a church.

hamlet     A hamlet is shown by fewer blocks scatterd along a road; labelled in lowercase italic, eg:-
image snip from map

Oakhanger
Upr. Sombourn

house     A geat house might be drawn as a house; and labelled, eg:-
Titchborne House
Most houses are drawn with a park, eg:-
Boldrewood Lodge
There are named houses without any symbol, eg:-
Blue Hou.
east of Hartley Westpall.

farm     As well as houses and estates the map labels a number of farms, eg:-
Ford F. [SW of Odiham]
Priory Fa. [S of Hartley Mauditt]
Farm [7m W from Andover by road]


roads    
turnpike gates    
road distances    
distances from London    

Roads are drawn by a double line, solid or dotted presumably indicating fenced and unfenced edges. Two grades of road are shown, distinguished by width. The whole county is covered by a network of large and small roads; the larger roads including nearly all the 'Ogilby' routes and other of equal prominence. It is worth noting that the Ogilby route London-Southampton that ignored Winchester now takes an abrupt turn to the city across easton Down. The older route is still there, continuing through Morestead and Twyford by narrower roads.
Some routes are named. The London - Basingstoke - Andver - Salisbury road is:-
The Great Western Road
The Andover - Amesbury continuation of the route is called the:-
Warminster Road
The road across the county through Wickham and Cosham is:-
The Salisbury & Bath Rd
In all this can be seen changes of perception of routes from those of Ogilby's period. It would be interesting to compare the route names with earlier sources; Ogilby's route titles, Cary's itinerary names, in particular.
Roads out of the county have their destination or start, given, perhaps with a distance. Eg:-
to Chichester from Havant 9M.
from Amesbury to Andover 14M.
from Cranborne
to Newbury
A few roads have names, eg:-
image snip from map

Popham La
Gravel Hill (SW of Rake)
A few junctions are named, eg:-
image snip from map

Lobcomb Corner
and
Cross Ways
on Hinton Common north of Christchurch.
Two gates are labelled:-
Hatchet Gate
WSW of Beaulieu, and
Hampshire Gate
NNE of Tangley. These might be turnpike gates?
Some of the larger roads are marked with distances each mile, excepting where there is no space to engrave the number. The distances might be from London, for example on the road entering the county at Blackwater are numbers 31, 32, 33, etc on the route through Basingstoke. Where the route divides, at Basingstoke, the numbers continue correctly down each branch. Other roads have distances from a local start; thus the road from Stockbridge is numbered eastwards towards Basingstoke. This road's numbering starts again near Wonston. Following the numbering you can see that Cruchley does not think of the route from Popham corner being a route to Salisbury, but a route to to Winchester, to which the numbering leads (though the Salisbury route is named 'London Road' just NE of Wonston).
Route diagram
see:- CRU1RTE.txt


railways    
image snip from map

Railways are added to the map, engraved over and obliterating some original features. They are shown by very bold solid lines with large dots for stations, with equally bold dotted lines for routes 'in progress' which may or may not have happened:-
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Routes are labelled in bold upright block caps along the lines, eg:-
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY MAIN LINE
for the London and Southampton Railway which had become the London and South Western Railway, LSWR, in 1839. Stations are also labelled in bold upright block caps, eg:-
WINCHESTER STA.
ANDOVER JUN STA.
Tunnels are shown by a double dotted line, the width matching the width of the bold solid line, labelled:-
image snip from map

TUNNEL
for example, north of Micheldever Station.
A thorough analysis of the railways might be interesting. At least one of the lines in progress was never built, that shown from Petersfield to Bishops Waltham.

telegraphs    
The map shows telegraphs, closely associated with the railways, by hatching alongside the railway line with telegraph stations marked by hatching around the railway station's dot. These are electric telegraphs. Not all railway stations were telegraph stations. See for example the telegraph running alongside all the London and Southampton line, with telegraph stations at Basingstoke, Winchester, Bishopstoke (better known now as Eastleigh) and Southampton only. Some lines have no telegraph.
See:-
image snip from map

BASINGSTOKE STA
with the telegraph along the LSWR and the Berks and Hants lines, and a telegraph station.
The telegraph from near Brockenhurst Junction to Lymington follows the line of the road not the railway, going to a telegraph station in the town. This line continues independently of railway to Keyhaven and thence to Hurst Castle telegraph station, and across the mouth of The Solent to the Isle of Wight, and by land to an end telegraph station at Cowes.
See:-
image snip from map

at Lymington, and
image snip from map

at Hurst Castle.
The telegraphs mapped are electric telegraphs, the 'two needle' telegraph invented by Cooke and Wheatstone. Railways were probably the best customers for this then new form of communication. See:-
Kichenside, G & Williams, A: 1998: Two Centuries of Railway Signalling: Oxford Publishing:: ISBN 0 86093 541 8


canals    
Canals have a distinctive method of drawing, a triple line, light bold light. The following canals can be recognised:-
Basingstoke Canal     from Basingstoke eastward to the Surrey border, and its branch from North Warnborough northwards to Turgis Green which was never cut and had probably been given up decades before the map was drawn. The section in a tunnel at Greywell is drawn by a single dotted line. Bridges over the canal are clearly shown by the track or road interrupting it. Labelled:-
image snip from map

Basingstoke Canal

Portsmouth and Arundel Canal     The section across Portsea Island is shown from Milton to Portsmouth, even though closed by the time the map was published.

Itchen Navigation     The only suggestion of an Itchen Navigation is a stretch of the river named:-
image snip from map

Barge R.


miscellaneous    



race courses    
The map shows a few of the county's race courses:-
image snip from map

Stockbridge Course
labelled, and marked by an oval of double dotted line north west of the town.
Winchester Race Grd.
is labelled on Worthy Down north of the city.
Race Gro,
labels the oval of Lyndhurst race course, just north east of the town.

antiquities    
tumuli    
hillforts    
roman camps    
roman roads    

A number of antiquities are shown on the map, marked and/or labelled. This includes some doubtful 'roman camps' for hillforts and perhaps too many 'Cromwell's camps'. Examples:-
image snip from map

Quarley Mount and Camp [hillfort]
Keats or Canutes Barrow
Camp [Danebury hillfort]
Roman Camp [Old Winchester Hill earthwork]
Amphitheatre [W of Silchester]
image snip from map

Cromwells Camp [SE of Winchester]
Oliver Cromwell's Camp [W of Winchester]
There are also roads labelled:-
Roman Road
as just south of Dibden which may or may not be that. And roman roads like:-
image snip from map

Port Way

inns    
The map marks a number of inns on roads, mostly by label alone, eg:-
Bottom Inn
about mile 59 on the road to Portsmouth south of Petersfield. And:-
image snip from map

Sun Inn
Wheatsheaf Inn
both on Popham Lane outside Basingstoke.
Inn
at mile 43+ on the Western Road west of Nately Scures.

crosses    
Wood Cross
is shown by a cross on Nursling Common.

posts    
Several posts are noticed on the map. Eg:-
image snip from map

Wilverly Post [drawning of a finger post?]
Picked Post [E of Ringwod]
Wollymore Post [E of Hale]

monuments    
Rufus's Stone
is labelled in the New Forest.

army camps    
barracks    
hospitals    

The British Army's new camps at Aldershot are marked by arrays of squares, labelled:-
image snip from map

NTH. CAMP
STH. CAMP
with North Camp Station nearby.
On Portsea Island, partly overprinted by the railway, is:-
H[ors]ea B[ar]racks
And:-
Haslar Hosp
NETLEY HOSP.
are marked and labelled.

mills    
water mills    
windmills    

A spiked wheel symbol on the River Meon marks:-
image snip from map

Funtly Mill
North of Bentworth there is a post mill symbol:-
image snip from map



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MN: 3.10.2000
last edit: 23.6.2003