NOTES from CRUCHLEY'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1856
||These notes are made from the map of Hampshire, including the Christchurch area, Dorset and the Isle of Wight, published by G F Cruchley, London, 1856. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1999.91|
|The map includes the Isle of Wight; the notes are about Hampshire, and the part of Dorset that was then Hampshire, only.|
map type: HantsMap & Cruchley 1856
|The map size is: wxh, sheet, unfolded = 50.5x57.5cm; wxh, map = 482x547mm.|
Printed on the map lower right is:-
CRUCHLEY'S RAILWAY & TELEGRAPHIC MAP OF HAMPSHIRE Showing all the RAILWAYS & NAMES OF STATIONS, ALSO THE TELEGRAPH LINES & STATIONS, Improved from the ORDNANCE SURVEYS. LONDON. PUBLISHED BY G. F. CRUCHLEY, MAP-SELLER & GLOBE MAKER, 81, FLEET STREET.in a restrained riot of fonts.
Printed on the map cover in black on yellow:-
CRUCHLEY'S RAILWAY AND TELEGRAPHIC County Map of HAMPSHIRE. N.B. These excellent County Maps, larger and superior to any other for Railway Travelling, are offered to the Public at SIXPENCE EACH, the price at which the most inferior County Maps are sold. The names of all the Railways and Stations are inserted on these Maps, likewise the Companies to which they belong. SIXPENCE COLOURED. N.B. Sent Postage Free on Receipt of Seven Stamps. G. F. CRUCHLEY, Map Publisher and Globe Manufacturer, 81, FLEET STREET. SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS & RAILWAY STATIONS.
up is N
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
At the lower left is a scale line in a shaded cartouche:-
SCALEThe scale line is chequered in miles, 10 miles = 93.3mm, gives a scale of 1 to 172491 assuming a statute mile, ie the map scale is about:-
1 to 170000
3 miles to 1 inchThe latitude scale provides another indicator of scale. 40 minutes of latitude = 413 mm gives a scale 1 to 179691. The map scale is about:-
1 to 180000
3 miles to 1 inch
lat and long scales
Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a rectangular projection; chequered at 1 minute intervals, labelled at 5 minute intervals and degrees. The bottom border is labelled:-
Longitude West from London
table of symbols
Printed upper left is a table of symbols:-
Chief Places of County Election [maltese cross with a dot and arrow]
Polling Places [maltese cross]
Boroughs returning Two Members [2 asterisks attached to place symbol]
Boroughs returning One Member [1 asterisk attached to place symbol]
Boundaries of Boroughs [dashed line]
Division of Counties [dot dash line]
RAILWAYS & NAMES OF STATIONS [very bold line, double dotted line labelled TUNNEL, large dot and station name in block caps]
TELEGRAPH LINES & STATIONS [hatching added to railway line and station dot]
RAILWAYS IN PROGRESS [very bold dotted line]This clearly takes many symbols used on the map for granted, conventional and familiar to the intended users. The symbols remarked are for electoral data which is still relatively new since the Reform Act 1832 and subsequent acts, and for railways and telegraphs which are the very latest thing.
The sea is plain. Some areas are labelled, eg:-
SPITHEADForeshore mud or sand flats and sandbanks are drawn with a dotted line and might be labelled, eg:-
Spit BankRocks are shown on the Shingles by little Xs.
SHINGLESA conical buoy is drawn and labelled:-
Royal Georgemarking the wreck of this ship which was a hazard to navigation, removed later in the century.
A sea mark is shown by labelling, only:-
Jack in the Basketand there is a:-
Light Ho.indicated on Hurst Spit.
Some of the smaller islands are shown within Portsmouth and Langstone Harbours, some labelled, eg:-
The coast line is emphasised by shading. A variety of coastal features are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury or Christchurch Head
Stans Ore PointAt a few places there is an attempt to show the coast appearance; for instance, indication of low cliffs between Browndown Point and Titchfield Haven:-
Harbours are noticed and labelled, but the name is sometimes implied by the nearby place as at Christchurch where is:-
PORTSMOUTH HARBOURwhich also has:-
Dock YardThere is another
Dock Yardat Buckler's Hard on the Beaulieu River.
The coastal defences about the Solent are marked; both the
Henry VIII castles and more modern fortifications:-
South Sea castle
Forts (on Southsea shore)
Cumberland Ft.Southsea Castle's symbol looks a bit like a square with buttresses, but the symbols are not particularly distinctive.
Fortifications are shown by zigzag lines, suggestive, but no better, of polygonal artillery style fortifications, at Gosport, Portsmouth and Portsmouth dockyard:-
and all along the north shore of Portsea Island, labelled:-
Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering inland from their estuaries which have shading continued in from the coast. Broader parts of rivers are drawn with a double line. A few rivers are labelled, eg:-
Crockford Water [east of Boldre]
Ex or Beaulieu River
Dark Water [near Stans Ore Point]Some of the river names are less common on other maps. An upper part of the Test, about Whitchurch, is labelled:-
Anton Rbut so is the tributary of the Test from Andover. The tributary usually called the Bourne Rivulet, through St Marty Bourne, is labelled:-
Test R.Just what firm test can be used to determine which branch at a junction is the tributary and which the main stream!
Braiding is drawn, for example at Breamore on the Avon. And all the river systems are drawn with many tributaries.
Some ponds are marked, and might be labelled, eg:-
Gomer Pond (near Browndown)The pond at Alresford is drawn but not labelled. Two ponds are shown at Fleet, named only by the adjacent:-
FLEET POND STATIONon the railway.
A pond might be shaded, as at Woolmer, or not, as at Alresford.
Bridges are mostly indicated by a road interrupting a river. Some are named, eg:-
Avon Bri. [over the Avon at Avon]
Kitcomb Br [near Leckford]Other bridges are suggested by place names, such as Fordingbridge, Stockbridge, Horse Bridge Station, etc. There is a gap in the river drawn at:-
Relief is indicated by hill hachuring, with several of the hills or groups of hills labelled, eg:-
Weavers Hill [NE of Liss]
Winchester Hill [Old Winchester Hill]
Mount Pleasant [N of Sherfield English]
Duckholt Hillswhere Buckholt Forest should be marked and labelled.
Again there are place names on this map which may not occur on other maps.
Other hill names might be impied by settlement names, Filmer Hill for instance.
Beacons are no longer an important feature of the landscape,
but some of the old beacon locations are remembered in hill
Beacon Hill [by Dibden, the Hythe Beacon]
Beacon Hill [N of Farley]
Woods and forests are marked by group of tree symbols, some labelled, eg:-
FOREST of BERE [East Bere Forest]
Alice Holt Forest
WOOLMER FORESTwhich last has no trees, a reminder that 'forest' is a hunting area rather then a lot of trees.
There is a:-
Boundary Treemarked as a single tree south of Dibden in the New Forest area. There are the:-
Half Moon Treesmarked as a small group east of Paulton Park.
A number of downs, commons, heaths, etc are labelled, eg:-
Easton Down [E of Winchester]
Longwood WarrenSome of the common areas are marked by pecking plus small bush symbols. This is also used for undergrowth in some woodland areas of East Bere Forest and is all that is marked for Woolmer Forest.
Parks are drawn by an outline with upright fence palings.
These include more than the ancient formally emparked areas. Most
of the parks enclose a house; some have trees and other
vegetation. Their shapes and sizes attempt to represent the
extent of the estate. Labelling is in lowercase italic text,
The county boundary is a dashed line, except where a river or the sea coast takes over the function. (The boundary between the electoral 'County Divisions', north and south Hampshire, is a dot dash line, as shown in the table of symbols.) The county boundary is tinted because it is also a division boundary.
The boundaries between adjacent counties are irregular, some shown, eg Wiltshire/Dorset, some not, eg Surrey/West Sussex. The detached part of Wiltshire north of Silchester is drawn. The detached part of Hampshire in West Sussex is not drawn.
Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
Hundred boundaries are dotted lines. The hundred names are in large light block caps across the map, eg:-
PART OF ODIHAM H.
The table of symbols gives a fine dashed line for borough boundaries. These are not prominent among all the other detail on the map; and remember that the map postdates the Reform Act 1832 and other reforms, that some old boroughs are no more. The boundaries around Winchester and Lymington, for example, are easy to see; that round Andover is less easy, or absent.
Settlements are shonw by blocks or groups of blocks
representing buildings, along roads and streets. In the larger
places these make a street plan of sorts. The parish church, or
other, even a cathedral, is shown by a drawing of a church
symbol, building and tower. Places are graded by the amount of
building and their text labels.
A city is drawn by groups of blocks along streets, the
cathedral drawn by building and tower; labelled in upright block
WINCHESTER [maltese cross and arrow, square, two stars]This city has other churches as well, named, eg:-
St GilesWinchester has a maltese cross and arrow indicating that it is a Chief Place of County Election (so is Southampton) and has two asterisks indicating that it returns two members to Parliament. The borough boundary is a dashed line.
A town is drawn the same way as a as a city. For example,
Southampton has all the features that Winchester has.
A smaller town is shown by blocks grouped on streets making a street plan, plus a church shown by a building with a tower; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
ALTONThis town has a maltese cross to show that it is a Polling Place.
A village is shown by a scatter of blocks along roads, plus a
church drawn by building and tower; labelled in upright
SelbournThere might not be a church.
A hamlet is shown by fewer blocks scatterd along a road;
labelled in lowercase italic, eg:-
A geat house might be drawn as a house; and labelled, eg:-
Titchborne HouseMost houses are drawn with a park, eg:-
Boldrewood LodgeThere are named houses without any symbol, eg:-
Blue Hou.east of Hartley Westpall.
As well as houses and estates the map labels a number of
Ford F. [SW of Odiham]
Priory Fa. [S of Hartley Mauditt]
Farm [7m W from Andover by road]
distances from London
Roads are drawn by a double line, solid or dotted presumably
indicating fenced and unfenced edges. Two grades of road are
shown, distinguished by width. The whole county is covered by a
network of large and small roads; the larger roads including
nearly all the 'Ogilby' routes and other of equal prominence. It
is worth noting that the Ogilby route London-Southampton that
ignored Winchester now takes an abrupt turn to the city across
easton Down. The older route is still there, continuing through
Morestead and Twyford by narrower roads.
Some routes are named. The London - Basingstoke - Andver - Salisbury road is:-
The Great Western RoadThe Andover - Amesbury continuation of the route is called the:-
Warminster RoadThe road across the county through Wickham and Cosham is:-
The Salisbury & Bath RdIn all this can be seen changes of perception of routes from those of Ogilby's period. It would be interesting to compare the route names with earlier sources; Ogilby's route titles, Cary's itinerary names, in particular.
Roads out of the county have their destination or start, given, perhaps with a distance. Eg:-
to Chichester from Havant 9M.
from Amesbury to Andover 14M.
to NewburyA few roads have names, eg:-
Gravel Hill (SW of Rake)A few junctions are named, eg:-
Cross Wayson Hinton Common north of Christchurch.
Two gates are labelled:-
Hatchet GateWSW of Beaulieu, and
Hampshire GateNNE of Tangley. These might be turnpike gates?
Some of the larger roads are marked with distances each mile, excepting where there is no space to engrave the number. The distances might be from London, for example on the road entering the county at Blackwater are numbers 31, 32, 33, etc on the route through Basingstoke. Where the route divides, at Basingstoke, the numbers continue correctly down each branch. Other roads have distances from a local start; thus the road from Stockbridge is numbered eastwards towards Basingstoke. This road's numbering starts again near Wonston. Following the numbering you can see that Cruchley does not think of the route from Popham corner being a route to Salisbury, but a route to to Winchester, to which the numbering leads (though the Salisbury route is named 'London Road' just NE of Wonston).
Railways are added to the map, engraved over and obliterating some original features. They are shown by very bold solid lines with large dots for stations, with equally bold dotted lines for routes 'in progress' which may or may not have happened:-
Routes are labelled in bold upright block caps along the lines, eg:-
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY MAIN LINEfor the London and Southampton Railway which had become the London and South Western Railway, LSWR, in 1839. Stations are also labelled in bold upright block caps, eg:-
ANDOVER JUN STA.Tunnels are shown by a double dotted line, the width matching the width of the bold solid line, labelled:-
TUNNELfor example, north of Micheldever Station.
A thorough analysis of the railways might be interesting. At least one of the lines in progress was never built, that shown from Petersfield to Bishops Waltham.
The map shows telegraphs, closely associated with the
railways, by hatching alongside the railway line with telegraph
stations marked by hatching around the railway station's dot.
These are electric telegraphs. Not all railway stations were
telegraph stations. See for example the telegraph running
alongside all the London and Southampton line, with telegraph
stations at Basingstoke, Winchester, Bishopstoke (better known
now as Eastleigh) and Southampton only. Some lines have no
BASINGSTOKE STAwith the telegraph along the LSWR and the Berks and Hants lines, and a telegraph station.
The telegraph from near Brockenhurst Junction to Lymington follows the line of the road not the railway, going to a telegraph station in the town. This line continues independently of railway to Keyhaven and thence to Hurst Castle telegraph station, and across the mouth of The Solent to the Isle of Wight, and by land to an end telegraph station at Cowes.
at Lymington, and
at Hurst Castle.
The telegraphs mapped are electric telegraphs, the 'two needle' telegraph invented by Cooke and Wheatstone. Railways were probably the best customers for this then new form of communication. See:-
Kichenside, G & Williams, A: 1998: Two Centuries of Railway Signalling: Oxford Publishing:: ISBN 0 86093 541 8
Canals have a distinctive method of drawing, a triple line,
light bold light. The following canals can be recognised:-
from Basingstoke eastward to the Surrey border, and its branch
from North Warnborough northwards to Turgis Green which was never
cut and had probably been given up decades before the map was
drawn. The section in a tunnel at Greywell is drawn by a single
dotted line. Bridges over the canal are clearly shown by the
track or road interrupting it. Labelled:-
|Portsmouth and Arundel Canal||
The section across Portsea Island is shown from Milton to
Portsmouth, even though closed by the time the map was
The only suggestion of an Itchen Navigation is a stretch of
the river named:-
The map shows a few of the county's race courses:-
Stockbridge Courselabelled, and marked by an oval of double dotted line north west of the town.
Winchester Race Grd.is labelled on Worthy Down north of the city.
Race Gro,labels the oval of Lyndhurst race course, just north east of the town.
A number of antiquities are shown on the map, marked and/or
labelled. This includes some doubtful 'roman camps' for hillforts
and perhaps too many 'Cromwell's camps'. Examples:-
Quarley Mount and Camp [hillfort]
Keats or Canutes Barrow
Camp [Danebury hillfort]
Roman Camp [Old Winchester Hill earthwork]
Amphitheatre [W of Silchester]
Cromwells Camp [SE of Winchester]
Oliver Cromwell's Camp [W of Winchester]There are also roads labelled:-
Roman Roadas just south of Dibden which may or may not be that. And roman roads like:-
The map marks a number of inns on roads, mostly by label
Bottom Innabout mile 59 on the road to Portsmouth south of Petersfield. And:-
Wheatsheaf Innboth on Popham Lane outside Basingstoke.
Innat mile 43+ on the Western Road west of Nately Scures.
Wood Crossis shown by a cross on Nursling Common.
Several posts are noticed on the map. Eg:-
Wilverly Post [drawning of a finger post?]
Picked Post [E of Ringwod]
Wollymore Post [E of Hale]
Rufus's Stoneis labelled in the New Forest.
The British Army's new camps at Aldershot are marked by arrays
of squares, labelled:-
STH. CAMPwith North Camp Station nearby.
On Portsea Island, partly overprinted by the railway, is:-
NETLEY HOSP.are marked and labelled.
A spiked wheel symbol on the River Meon marks:-
Funtly MillNorth of Bentworth there is a post mill symbol:-
|map type Cruchley 1856 -- menu of resources|
|railway lines -- CRU1RWY.txt|
|source item -- HMCMS:FA1999.91 -- railway map|
|list of map notes|
HantsMap Notes -- CRUCH1.txt
last edit: 23.6.2003