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Faden 1796
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NOTES from FADEN'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1796

FA1998.219  
These notes are taken from the single sheet map of Hampshire, published by William Faden, London, 1796. The map is derived from the 6 sheet, 1 inch to 1 mile map by Thomas Milne, published by Faden, 1791. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1998.219.
map type: HantsMap & Faden 1796
The map includes the Isle of Wight, but remember that these notes tend to ignore anywhere except Hampshire.
The map size is: wxh, map = 567x653 mm

MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    

Printed lower right is:-
image snip from map

Hampshire or the COUNTY of SOUTHAMPTON Including the ISLE OF WIGHT Reduced from the large Map in Six Sheets BY W. FADEN Geographer to His Majesty, and to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales Charing Cross June 4th. 1796.
The map from which this is reduced is the survey by Thomas Milne, working for William Faden, published in 6 sheets, 1791. Milne's was probably the first proper survey of the county since elizabethan times. The map has a neat and legible style of engraving which makes it pleasant to use.

orientation    
compass rose    
up is N    

image snip from map

Printed lower right is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, north marked by the Prince of Wales's Feathers. The map is printed with north at the top of the sheet.

scale line    
scale    

There are two scale lines printed on the right, a:-
image snip from map

SCALE of Six English MILES.
chequered and labelled at mile intervals, 0..6, with a leftward mile chequered and labelled at 4 and 8 furlongs. The 6 miles = 60.2 mm giving a scale 1 to 160400. The map scale is about:-
1 to 160000
2.5 miles to 1 inch
Using positions of a selection of towns, processed by DISTTAB.exe the map scale is estimated at 1 to 156194; not much different; map scale:-
1 to 160000
2.5 miles to 1 inch
The second scale line is a:-
Scale of Six Thousand Fathoms
This is chequered and labelled at 1000 fathom intervals and has a leftward extension of a fathom chequered and labelled at 500 and 1000 fathoms. The 6000 fathoms = 68.4 mm giving a scale 1 to 160421 - which is the same within the errors of my measurement.

lat and long scales    
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Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a trapezoidal projection. All the scales are chequered at 1 minute intervals. The latitude scales and the top longitude scale are labelled in degrees and minutes, but the bottom longitude scale is labelled in minutes and four second intervals of time. The bottom scale is labelled:-
Minutes of Times
Seconds of Time against the IV and III.48 marks.
The:-
Meridian of Portsmouth Royal Academy Long. 1 [degree] 6 [minutes] 15 [seconds] W from Greenwich.
is drawn and labelled (but not the corresponding parallel of latitude).
Using the map's scales the
longitude, Winchester = 1d 18.3m W
agreeing with a prime meridian at Greenwich.

sea area    
sea plain    
depth soundings    
anchorages    
sandbanks    
buoys    
wrecks    
leading lines    

The sea is plain. A few sea areas are labelled, eg:-
CHRISTCHURCH BAY
SOUTHAMPTON RIVER [ie Southampton Water]
Hayling Bay
In The Solent and its approaches there are depth soundings, figures in fathoms, eg:-
image snip from map

7
6 1/4
One anchorage is marked by an anchor symbol, labelled:-
St. Helens Road.
Some of the well known shallows are indicated by a dotted outline, perhaps labelled, eg:-
The Shingles
image snip from map

Bramble
Middle
Spitbank
THE HORSE
THE DEAN
The last two being described as:-
Loose Shifting Sand
Off the entrance to Chichester Harbour the shallows are drawn as islands.
Although not labelled, quite hard to notice, there are buoys marked by the Bramble and Middle banks. A sequence of buoys is marked along the south west edge of the Horse and Dean Sands, labelled:-
Dean Buoys
and individually with name and colour:-
Horse Buoy / black
[second buoy not labelled]
Third Buoy / black
Fourth Buoy / black
image snip from map

Outer Buoy / black
The symbol for a buoy suggests the conical shape typical for these markers at the time. There are other names buoys, eg:-
Edgar Buoy
which marks the wreck of the 3rd rate ship HMS Edgar, 70 guns, launched 1709, which blew up and sank, 15 October 1711.
Off the entrance to Portsmouth Harbour in Spithead is:-
Wreck of the Royal George
near a sounding for 13 fathoms.
A leading line is drawn for the eastern approach channel, labelled:-
image snip from map

Fort Monckton and Kickergill in one.

coast line    
coast form lines    
coast appearance    
headlands    
lighthouses    
harbours    

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The coast line is emphasized by form lines. Extending some way from the coast these produce very satisfying patterns of engraving.
In places the foreshore shallows are indicated, for instance off Selsey Bill.
There is a suggestion of coast appearance; by hachures for low cliffs near Lymington River, by dotted tussocks for marshy areas at Southsea.
A few headlands are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury of Christchurch Head
Needsore Pt.
Harbours are recognisable but mostly not labelled, except:-
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
A crude beacon/tower symbol on Hurst Point is labelled:-
image snip from map

Lighthouse

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

Coastal defence castles and more modern fortifications are marked and labelled:-
image snip from map

Hurst Cas.
Calshot Castle
Redoubt [east point of Stokes Bay]
[fortifications around Gosport]
Magazine [Priddy's Hard]
Blockhouse [south west of Fareham]
The Lines [north edge of Portsea Island]
Hilsea Barracks
[heavy fortifications] DOCK YARD
image snip from map

[fortifications around Portsmouth]
Southsea Cas.
Cumberland F.
East Stoke F.
The fortifications suggest angular, artillery style fortification. Around the dock yard there are 4 fierce layers of angular lines.

rivers    
ponds    
fords    
bridges    
ferries    

image snip from map

From their estuary rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering inland. The larger rivers are labelled, eg:-
Stour R.
Anton or Test River
The last is labelled with the joint name at the bottom; then divides as the Anton R through Andover and the Test R coming from the north east; then the Bourne Rivulet is labelled Test and the eastward arm, now called the Test is labelled Anton. This sort of uncertainty is not unusual.
The wide lower course of the Beaulieu River is labelled:-
Beaulieu River
then, still below the village:-
River Ex
Rivers are continued upstream some way and drawn with tributary streams, some of which are labelled, eg:-
Blashford Brook
off the Avon north of Ringwood.
Some ponds are drawn in outline, with from lines if big enough, and perhaps labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Pond
by the road 1 mile west of Stockbridge, or drawn more grandly:-
Fleet Pond
Pond
at Alresford.
Some ferries are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Ferry [at Hythe]
Ferry [at Hambledon]
Bridges do not have a special symbol but are perhaps implied where road interrupts a river. Some are labelled, eg:-
Br.
at Avon on the River Avon, though you have to look carefully to see that it is on a side road out of the village, the village being all one side of the stream. Other bridges have fuller names, eg:-
image snip from map

Silver Lake Br. [1 mile east of Botley]
Aldern Br. [Enborne]
High Br. [Itchen]
A small road north of Hurstbourne Priors crosses the Bourne Rivulet at:-
Chapmans Ford

relief    
hill hachuring    

image snip from map

Relief is indicated by hill hachuring. This shows highs and lows effectively but does not clearly indicate how high is high. Where hachuring is crowded you have the same problem as with contour lines, in knowing which way is up, though it can be a little easier with hachures. Some downs and hills are labelled, eg:-
Odiham and Warnborough Downs
Froxfield Hangers
Sydmonton Hill
BUCKHOLT HILLS
At least one valley is labelled:-
Longwood Bottom

beacons    
Beacons are long past their primacy as part of the country's defence system but can be spotted from hill names, eg:-
image snip from map

Beacon Hill [by Dibden]
Beacon Camp [by Burghclere]
Popham Beacons
Beacon Hill [on Farley Mount]
The last has a curious symbol which might be the monument?

woods    
forests    
trees    
vegetation    

Wooded areas are shown by little tree symbols with a pecked ground for underbrush. Some are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Crab Wood [S of Sparsholt]
Stoke Wood
Sutton Woods [by Droxford]
Pamber Forest
Burnt Wood [by Oakley]
It is interesting that Woolmer is shown with lots of rough ground but without trees, whereas Alice Holt has trees. This is right; and is often wrongly done on other maps.
Some trees are noticed, for example:-
Lopton Thorn
without a tree symbol, near Lopcombe Corner, which is not labelled. and two:-
image snip from map

Bound Oak
on the boundary with Wiltshire, north edge of the Bramshaw woodland, each with a larger tree symbol. There is a similar tree symbol at a ?settlement:-
Crab Tree Green
west of Bishops Waltham. And there are other intriguingly suggestive place names, eg:-
Seven Thorns Inn [east of Bramshott]
Bulls Bushes [SSE of Oakley]
Yew Tree Down [east of Dundridge]
Other vegetation is suggested by place name and perhaps symbols on the map, eg:-
Priors Dean Common [tussock symbols]
Petersfield Heath
Southington Shrubs
Wide Mead [east of Swathling]
Tuston Warren
Two of the older forests are noticed particularly by having a dotted border, tinted on our copy of the map. These two are described in a table of data printed on the left.


CONTENTS OF ALICE HOLT & WOOLMER FORESTS

             
        A R P
Crown Lands in Alice Holt       2744 3 23
Do. ... ... in Woolmer       5959 2 8
Private property in both       6798 1 15
Total within the perambulation       15493 0 6

CONTENTS OF NEW FOREST

             
        A R P
Forest Lands       63845 0 2
Lodges and Lands held therewith       192 3 33
Incroachments on the Forest       900 3 37
Leaseholds under the Crown       003 3 34
Total within the perambulation       92365 6 14
table of symbols    
Below the two tables of forest data on the left is a table:-
COLOURING OF THE FOREST LANDS
The Boundary or perambulation of the New Forest and of Alice Holt and Woolmer is coloured ... Purple
The Forest Lands ... ... Green
Private Property ... ... Yellow

parks    
Parks are drawn in outline with fence palings round the boundary. The interior is tinted, on our map, and might show the great house, access roads, wooded avenues, etc. The park itself might be named, or its house, eg:-
image snip from map

Bramshill Park
Dogmersfield
Tilney Hall
Some parks have interesting detail. Bramshill is a nice example, having avenues of trees on its access roads, continued out into Eversley Common on the east.
Not all the parks are the old emparked estates; Tilney for one os newer. There are other seats which are marked by a house symbol without a park, eg:-
Rodenham

county    
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The county boundary is a dotdashed line, tinted for emphasis. The adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
DORSET SHIRE
PART OF WILTSHIRE
The detached part of Hampshire in West Sussex is shown. And there is a tiny detached part of:-
SUSSEX
embedded in Hampshire south west of Liphook. Also notice the detached parts of Wiltshire in Berkshire on the north edge of the county.
A few places outside the county are included for continuity, in the Farnham area in particular. The map includes the Isle of Wight. few boundary features are shown; two trees labelled:-
Bound Oak
already noted at Bramshaw; a series of named bridges over the Enborne , and:-
Flying Bull Inn the boundary of the Counties [by Rake]

settlements    
street map    

Settlements are shown by groups of blocks, mostly on or beside roads. The extent of the group shows the size of the place, and may become a street map as in Petersfield or at Portsmouth. The lettering style further differentiates places.
city    
town    
group of blocks making a street map; lettered in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

CITY OF WINCHESTER
image snip from map

PETERSFIELD
ALTON
but also, unexpectedly:-
TITCHFIELD
BROUGHTON

village     group of blocks on and by roads and perhaps a cross (+) for a church; lettered in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Upper Wallop
Meonstoke
Quarley

hamlet     small group of blocks; lettered in italic lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Oakhanger
Hatherden
Caval Acre [ENE of Wherwell]

house    
farm    
Single houses might be shown by a block, or a house drawing if a great house, a farm by a block or two. All these and other features might be labelled in italic lowercase text.


roads    
road distances    
turnpike roads    

image snip from map

Roads are drawn by double lines; solid or dotted indicating fenced and unfenced roads. The county os covered by a network of routes. Major roads have one of the lines bold, and probably have road distances marked by a dot and a figure at mile intervals. The miles are measured from a local town; thus from Alton to Farnham, from Alton to Fareham, from Alresford to Alton, for examples. Read carefully, especially where routes join.
Destinations out of the county are given on a number of roads, eg:-
Great Road to London [Ogilby 25 route]
to Guildford and London
From London
from Sarum
from Salisbury
to Newbury
A few roads and junctions have names, eg:-
Wickham Corner [by Wickham]
Ridge Lane [along Froxfield Hanger]
Lambs Corner [3m north of Lyndhurst]
Popham Lane
but not the famous Lopcombe Corner!
There is at least one turnpike road indicated by:-
Turnpike Gate
marked by a block for the toll house, and a line across the road, just west of Andover.

canals    
image snip from map

Canals are drawn by bold curvy lines, labelled, eg:-
NEW CANAL TO ANDOVER / CANAL from REDBRIDGE to ANDOVER
CANAL from BASINGSTOKE to the RIVER WEY
which includes the branch to Turgis that was never cut.
And cuts beside the River Itchen are labelled:-
Barge River
At least one canal bridge is labelled:-
Kilcomb Bridge [north east of Leckford]
Locks on the Andover canal are ignored, although there are a lot. The one lock on the Basingstoke Canal, near Ash, is labelled:-
Lock
and marked by two arrows in the way that is now the common convention, except that Faden has the arrows pointing down canal, not up as the gates are arranged. The canal tunnel at Grewyell has the canal dotted. An:-
Aqueduct
is labelled south of Crookham.
The two 'real' canals are described in tables of data printed on the left:-


CANAL from BASINGSTOKE to the RIVER WEY

                 
          Fall   Length  
          Ft. Is. Ms. Fs.
From Basingstoke to the Lock at Dradbrook         0 0 22 0
... Dradbrook to the junction of the River Wey         195 0 37 6
Total         195 0 37 6
The Collateral Branch from Odiham Mill to Turgis Green         0 0 6 0

CANAL from ANDOVER to REDBRIDGE

                     
          Length       Fall  
          Ms. Fs. Chs.   Ft. Is.
From Andover to Stockbridge         7 7 6 10 65 8
Stockbridge to Romsey         9 3 8 60 61 1
Romsey to Redbridge         5 1 4 63 19 9
Total         22 4 9 25 176 9
miscellaneous    
Some items noticed:-

inns    
An inn might be marked, for example:-
image snip from map

Red Lion [south of Stoke Charity]

mills    
water mills    
windmills    

image snip from map

A number of water mills are shown by a rayed circle symbol, for the water wheel, labelled, eg:-
Fleet Mill
Holbury Mill
Mill [at Lower Wallop]
Paper Mill [at Hook]
A drawing of a post mill marks the windmill west of Uppr. Hurstbourne.
image snip from map


iron works    
On the coast east of Lymington is:-
Sowley Iron Works

chalk pits    
North od Empshot is:-
Chalk Pitt

schools    
At Shirfield Englsih there is a:-
image snip from map

Boarding School

antiquities    
hillforts    
roman roads    
roman towns    

Oval outlines etc mark Danebury hillfort, labelled:-
image snip from map

Dunbury Hill and Camp
on Longstoke Hill.
Quarley has two ovals and dots inside, labelled:-
Quarley Mount and Camp
Tidbury Hill Camp
has nothing except the label. Etc.
Silchester roman town in drawn in outline with the supposed street pattern. An outside to the east:-
Amphitheatre
A number of roman roads are labelled, eg:-
Port Way
Roman Road from Old Sarum to Winchester

camps    
Besides Winchester there are:-
image snip from map

Cromwell's Camp [fortifications to south]
Ol Cromwell's Camp [fortifications to west]

race courses    
A number of race courses are shown. For example on Worthy Down there is:-
image snip from map

Winchester Race Ground
drawn by a dotted line oval with vertical posts.
Also see for examples:-
Stockbridge Course
Race Grd. [by Lyndhurst]

may poles    
At East Dean is:-
May Pole

follies    
North east of Bramley Green is:-
Floods Folly


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HantsMap Notes -- FADEN1.txt
MN: 22.4.2002
last edit: 18.5.2003