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Map feature, orientation  
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HMCMS Map Collection    Map Features - orientation

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list of feature summaries

Data extracted from Hampshire Map Notes In order by date from the Map type (maker year)
NB: typical illstrated examples are described, NOT ALL examples.
absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

Mappa Mundi c1300
(orientation; labelled borders; up is NE)
The map is labelled at the edges:-
Oriens
Meridio
Occidens
Septenrio
It has Jerusalem at the centre and East at the top. The inner circular frame has wind heads and named winds.
The distorted British Isles sitting at the northwest corner of the map has North East at the top.

Gough 1350s-60s
(orientation; up is E)
The map is drawn on a parchment to be held sideways; it is labelled so that East is at the top of the sheet.

Waldseemuller 1513
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Lily 1546
(orientation; up is W; labelled borders)
The map is printed with West at the top of the page; this puts the islands conveniently across a double page spread of a folded sheet in an atlas. The borders are labelled:-
[ ]
SEPTENTRIO
ORIENS
MERIDIES

Mercator 1564
(orientation; labelled borders; up is W)
Printed in 3 of the borders are directions:-
West [top]
Zuyd [left]
Oost [bottom]
The map is printed with West at the top of the sheets.

Lloyd 1573
(orientation; labelled borders; up is N)


The map is printed with north at the top. The four map borders are labelled:-
Septentrio.
short for Septentriones,
Oriens.
Meridies.
Occidens.
North, East, South, West.

Saxton 1575
(orientation; labelled borders)
The four borders of the map sheet are labelled with directions:-
SEPTENTRIO
ORIENS
MERIDIES
OCCIDENS



Ptolemy 1578
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with north at the top.

Saxton 1579
(orientation; compass rose; labelled borders; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page. The four borders are labelled:-


SEPTENTRIO
ORIENS
MERIDIES
OCCIDENS
At the middle of each side, against the border, is a half compass rose; marked for the cardinal, half cardinal, false and by points; North marked with a fleur de lys, East with a cross.

Waghenaer 1583
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is NW)
The map has a compass rose with star points for the cardinal, half cardinal and false points. Rhumb lines for these and the by points radiate from the rose. The main points are labelled:-
N NE E SE S SW W NW
and north is marked with a fleur de lys.
The map is not quite 'upright', up on the sheet is about NWbyN.

Popinjay 1587
(orientation; up is S; labelled borders)
The map is drawn with south at the top, ie as if looking out to sea from Hampshire. The right border is labelled:-
West

Petri 1588
(orientation; labelled borders; up is W)
The map borders are labelled:-
OCCIDENS
SEPTEN.
ORIENS
MERIDIES
It is printed with West at the top of the page. Its forerunner, Munster 1540, had East at the top.

Adams 1590
(orientation; labelled borders; compass rose; wind heads; up is N)
The map borders have labels:-
NORTHE
EAST
SOUTHE
WEST
There are also several compass roses. The grandest, printed on the left has label shape pointers for the cardinal, half cardinal, false and bye points, bearing the directions, as:-
NORTH
N B E
N N E
N E B N
NORTH E
N E B E
E N E
E B N
EAST
etc. On each rose, North is marked by a fleur de lys. The compass rose in the North Sea is decorated with an armillary sphere in the middle, the rose in the English Channel has a rose.
The four compass roses are drawn along the Armada track, and at each there is a wind head, a winged cherub head puffing out a wind. The compass rose on the left, in the Atlantic, the last stage of the Armada's journey homeward, has a scroll:-
A DEO FACTUM EST
roughly translated 'Made by God'. The wind that blew away the Armada.

Mercator 1595
(orientation; labelled borders)
The map has labelled borders:-


SEPTENTRIO / ORIENS / MERIDIES / OCCIDENS

Norden 1595 ms
(orientation; compass rose)
The compass rose has a fleur de lys to mark north, and inscription:-
Septen
for septentriones, refering to the seven stars.

Norden 1595
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; dividers)


Printed in the sea area south of Hayling is a compass rose with broad star points for the cardinal, half cardinal, false and by points. The cardinal directions are labelled:-
Septen / or / merid / oc
for septentriones - north, oriens - east, meridiens - south, occidens - west. The compass is suspended from a ring held by a cherub who has a pair of compasses in its other hand. The map is orientated with up being north.

Keer 1604
(orientation; up is W; compass rose; rhumb lines; labelled borders)
Printed in the middle is a compass rose with star points for the cardinal, half cardinal, false and by points. Rhumb lines radiate from the rose, engraved across sea areas, but no the land. North is indicated by a fleur de lys.
The map borders are labelled:-
Occidens
Septentrio
Oriens
Meridies
The map is printed with West at the top of the page.

Keer 1605
(orientation; labelled borders)


The left and right map borders are labelled:-
Occidens
Oriens
for west and east.

Norden 1607
(orientation; compass rose)
Compass rose and scale line are combined, together with an inscription of the map maker's and engraver's names.
Jo: Norden descripsit WHole sculp


The cardinal, half cardinal, and false points of the compass are indicated, north is marked with a fleur de lys. The cardinal points are named:-
SEPT
Septentriones: refering to the seven stars that make up the constellation of The Bear, or Plough, that is a pointer for the Pole Star in the North
ORI
Oriens: from the Latin orior, to rise, where the sun rises in the East
MERI
Meridiens: middle of the day, where the sun is then in the South
OCCI
Occidens: from the Latin occido, to fall or set, where the sun sets in the West

Speed 1611
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; labelled borders)
Printed lower left of centre is a compass rose. This is gaudily and clumsily painted. It has star points for the cardinal, half cardinal and false points, and lines for the by points. North is marked with a fleur de lys; east with a cross; south with a crescent; and west with three ?bezzants. All except the west are traditional signs for the purpose, though only the fleur de lys is in common use today. North is aligned up a meridian line, and, generally, the map is printed with north at the top of the page.
Additionaly, the map's four borders are labelled:-
NORTH
EAST
SOUTH
WEST

Drayton 1612
(orientation)
No indication is given, up is North is assumed.

Bertius 1616
(orientation; up is N; labelled borders)


The map is printed with north at the top. The map borders are labelled:-
SEPT
ORIENS
MERI.
OCCIDENS
for septentriones - north, east, meridies - south, and west.

Bill 1626
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no north indicator; it is printed with north at the top of the sheet.

Speed 1627
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is N)
Printed left of centre is a magnificent compass rose; star point for cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, and lesser points for the by points, North marked by a fleur de lys. Rhumb lines are drawn from the rose across the sea areas. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Simmons 1635
(orientation; up is SE; up is N)
The space for a map is tiny; the map is really small. To fit it in better the map is turned nearly 180 degrees from the usual 'up is N', the thumbnail is 'up is SE', roughly: but, judging by the place names on the map it is intended to be read 'up is N'.

Dankerts 1640s-50s
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines)
The chart has two compass roses; North marked by a fleur de lys; East by a circle and 3 circles. The chart is printed with North at the top of the sheet. Rhumb lines are drawn across the sea areas.

Jacobsz 1643
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is SE)
Printed in the centre is a compass rose; North marked by a fleur de lys; East by a circle and 3 circles. The chart is printed with SSE at the top.
Rhumb lines are drawn from the compass rose and from 16 other centres.

Hollar 1644
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed lower middle is a compass rose; star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for false and by points, North marked by a fleur de lys, E S and W labelled. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Blaeu 1645
(orientation; labelled borders)
The map has no compass rose. Top and bottom borders are labelled.


Septentrio
Oriens
Meridies
Occidens

Jansson 1646
(orientation; compass rose; labelled borders; up is W; rhumb lines)
The map has both compass rose and labelled borders.


Printed lower left is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, and lines for the by points. All directions are extended by rhumb lines across the sea area as far as the coast. North is marked by a fleur de lys, and east by a cross. The map is orientated with west at the top of the sheet, presumably a convenience have labels reading easily on a map on a double page spread in its atlas.


The four borders are labelled:-
Occidens
Septentrio
Oriens
Meridies

Goos 1665
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines)
There is a compass rose; N marked by a fleur de lys, East by a circle with 3 circles. The chart is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
Rhumb lines are drawn from the compass rose and another 16 centres.

Carr 1668
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed on the left is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for the false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Blome 1673
(orientation; compass rose)


Printed on the left is a compass rose; circle, lines for the cardinal directions, labelled:-
N E S W

Ogilby 1675
(strip map; road map; street map; roads; distances from London; orientation; compass rose)
The three banners carried by cherubs are clearly engraved, readable.
The 1st scroll is a strip road map titled:-


The Road from LONDON TO BARWICK
London is at the bottom with a road northeast to Harwic[ ]. The road north goes through Shorditch, Kingsland with turnings to Islington and Hackney, Newington, to Tottenham with its high Crosse, just over 5 miles into Middlesex. The miles from London are marked.
A compass rose on the scroll has star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions; North marked by a fleur de lys. Up the scroll is roughly north.
The 2nd scroll has a street map of:-


LONDON
with Westminster, Lambeth and Southwark labelled. This is orientated with North roughly at the top, the scroll held sideways. There is a simple compass rose, lines for the cardinal directions; fleur de lys for North, a cross for East.
The 3rd scroll has a road map of the area of:-


YORKSHIRE
and surrounding counties, parts of Westmorland, Lanc[ ]shi, Lincolnshire, etc. The map is a road map of the area, but not a strip map. This map is orientated with North at the top.
There is a scale line of:-
English miles
This is [surely] not meant as a serious scale to the map. Its 40 miles = 15.3mm gives a scale about 1 to 4200000, 66 miles to 1 inch. Measuring the positions of York, Lincoln and Durham does not reveal anything interesting, it wasn't likely to!

Ogilby 1675
(orientation; labelled borders; up is N)
The four map borders are labelled:-


NORTH
EAST
SOUTH
WEST
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Morden 1676
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


There is a compass rose, a plain circle, lines for the four cardinal directions, a fleur de lys for north, and a cross for east.

Walton 1679
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
There are three compass roses on the map, in sea around the island. They have star points for cardinal, half cardinal, false and by points. There are rhumb lines across sea areas; solid for all except the by point directions which are dotted. The map is printed with North at top of the sheet.

Blome 1681
(orientation; compass rose)


The map's orientation is given by a compass rose. This has star points for the cardinal and half cardinal points; stubby star points for the false points; north is marked by a fleur de lys. Map north is up on the sheet.

van Keulen c1681
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines)
There are several compass roses; North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The chart is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
There are rhumb lines drawn from the compass roses and other points, in a circle of 16 centres.

Lea 1687
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
The map has several compass roses; star points for cardinal and half cardinal and false points, lines for bye points, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by three balls. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Morden 1688
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Lea 1689
(orientation; labelled borders; up is N)
As original.

Morden c1690
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed on the right is a compass rose; star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Sanson 1692
(orientation; labelled borders; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines)
The map has several compass roses; North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a circle and 3 circles. These and various other centres are used for rhumb lines.
The chart also has labelled borders to show its orientation:-
Septentrion
Orient
Midy
Occident

Collins 1693
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is N)


Near the bottom right of centre is half a compass rose with star points for the cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, and lines for the by points. From these there are rhumb lines across land and sea. Half way up the chart, left and right, are centres for two more sets of rhumb lines; bold for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, light for the false, and dotted for the by point

Collins 1693
(orientation; compass rose)
There are several compass roses on the chart, each with rhumb lines running over sea and land. The rose has star points for cardinal, half cardinal and false points. The rhumb lines are bold continuous lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, continuous lines for false points, dotted lines for by points.

Seller 1694
(orientation; labelled borders)


The map's orientation is given by labels in the four borders:-
North
East
South
West
There is no compass rose.

Halley 1702
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines; magnetic variation)
The chart has several compass roses; North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.
The compass roses and other points, one group arranged in a circle of 16, are centres for rhumb lines.
Printed on the left is:-
Variation 7 1/2 Degrees

Morden 1708
(orientation; compass rose)


Added by Herman Moll, 1708; circle with lines for cardinal points, North marked by a fleur de lsy, East by a cross.

Overton 1708
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Aligned on the graticule is a compass rose; star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Bray 1712
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top.

Halley 1715
(orientation; up is N)
The maps orientation is implied by the latitude and longitude scales. It is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Moll 1717
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
There is a compass rose. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Musgrave 1717
(orientation; labelled borders; up is N)
To be inserted in the book the map has been trimmed close. One border is labelled:-


Occidens
The map is printed with North at the top.

Avery 1721
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; rhumb lines)
Printed in the two lower corners of the chart are quarter compass roses; circle, star points for cardinal, half cardinal, false and by points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The chart is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
Rhumb lines are drawn across sea areas from these two centres; solid lines for each of the directions listed.

Stukeley 1723
(orientation; up is N)
There is no compass rose; the map is printed with north at the top of the page.

Moll 1724
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
The map has no North indicator except the scales of latitude and longitude. It is printed with North at the top of the page.

Millward and Dickinson 1737
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed towards the left is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
The compass rose is not on the similar maps; as there is no reason to have removed it I think it likely that this map is later than those, the compass rose added.

Wright 1737
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed on the right is a compass rose aligned with the graticule; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Badeslade 1742
(orientation; compass rose)


Cardinal and half cardinal points are marked; a fleur de lys marks north, letter E and a small cross marks east, letters S and W mark south and west.

Cowley 1743
(orientation; compass rose)


The map has a simple compass rose, a circle with cross lines for the cardinal directions, north indicated by a fleur de lys, east by a cross.
Up is a about 5 degrees east of north.

Rocque 1746
(orientation; compass rose)


The map has a compass rose, upper left, with star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions. North is marked by a fleur de lys.

Hutchinson 1748
(orientation; compass rose)


There is a compass rose with star points for the cardinal and half cardinal points, north is marked by a fleur de lys.
Map north is about 10 degrees west of, ie counterclockwise of, north. (This does not help fit the county shape to a rectangular page, quite the contrary.)

Grierson 1749
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is W; magnetic variation)
The map has a compass rose aligned on the graticule; star points for cardinal, half cardinal and false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with West at the top of the sheet.
Rhumb lines are drawn from the compass rose, and from 15 other centres arranged in a circle around the chart, like a portolan chart. They extend over sea and land, keeping clear of labels. On several rhumb lines there is a printed comment about magnetic variation, for example, in the centre of the chart:-
Variation 11: West
other rhumb lines have 10 1/2, 10 and 11.

Kitchin and Jefferys 1749
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper left is a minimal compass rose; circle, lines for cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. This is little more than a north point. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Bickham 1750
(orientation)
The map is a perspective view of the county rather than a true map. Up is west; Hampshire is seen from the east beyond Havant as if standing on a high [very high] vantage point graced with ruins - urns, columns, pyramids, and all.
The view stretches to a horizon just beyond Poole, Dorset, it includes a distorted county inland to Andover and Whitchurch, but Basingstoke is obscured behind the ruins, Alton, Petersfield, and Portsmouth are in view; it includes the Isle of Wight.
Working with a scanned image of the map in a computer graphics program it has been possible to show how poor the perspective is. All attempts at projective transformations fail to make the map conform to reality. This is lamentable at this late date, when artists had a thoroughly accurate knowledge of perspective.

Bickham 1750
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed upper right of centre is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal and false points, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Kitchin 1750
(orientation; compass rose)


Lower left there is a minimal compass rose; two lines for the cardinal directions in a circle, north marked by a fleur de lys and east by a cross.

Kitchin 1751 small
(orientation; compass rose)


There is a minimal compass rose, circle and four cardinal lines, a fleur de lys marking north, a cross for east.

Kitchin 1751 large
(orientation; compass rose)


There is a compass rose. This is a simple design; a circle with N-S line and E-W cross line, marking the four cardinal points, North is marked with a fleur de lys, East By a cross.

Bowen 1755
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the right is a simple compass rose, a circle with lines for the four cardinal directions, north marked by a fleur de lys, east by a cross. The map has north at the top of the page.

Rocque 1760s
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Bellin 1762
(orientation; north point; up is N; magnetic variation; rhumb lines)


The chart has three centres from which rhumb lines are drawn across land and sea areas; solid bold for cardinal and half cardinal directions, dotted for false points, solid light for by points. The centres are the lower three of what would be a circle of 16 centres.
Printed lower centre, at the middle of the three centres, is a north point; North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
At this centre there is a magnetic north line, marked by a fleur de lys, west of true North, the angle labelled:-


Variation 15d. NO
ie Nord Ouest.

Bowen 1763
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed lower left is a simple compass rose aligned on the graticule; circle, star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Bowles 1763
(orientation; compass rose)
Same as Kitchin; but tinted.

Kitchin 1763
(orientation; compass rose)


There is a compass rose with star points for the cardinal directions and lines for the half cardinal directions. North is marked by a large fleur de lys, east by a cross. Up is north on the sheet.

Kitchin 1763
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed lower left is a simple compass rose; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top.

Dury 1764
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed lower right is a compass rose; circles, star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal, North marked by a fleur de lys; East marked by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet (towards the spine of the book).

Hinton 1765
(orientation; north point; up is destination)


Each column has a north point; N-S line, North marked by a fleur de lys, E-W cross line, East marked by a cross. Up on the page is the destination of the route; the column is read from bottom to top as you go.

Bowen 1767
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed left of centre is a small compass rose; circle, star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys, East marked by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Kitchin 1769
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed lower right is a plain compass rose; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal, North marked by a fleur de lys, east by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Whitworth 1770
(orientation; compass rose; up is E)
The canal runs north-south; it is printed on a wide sheet with East at the top of the page. There is a simple compass rose printed centrally; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys.
From my own experience I note that a tall and thin canal map, which for this canal would put North at the top, has the advantage of giving more space for place name and other labels.

Bowen 1772
(orientation; north point; up is N)
The map's orientation is indicated by the latitude and longitude scales, but also by a north point aligned on the graticule, lower left; North marked by a fleur de lys, East by a cross. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Unknown 1772
(orientation; compass rose)

Bowles 1773
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose or north point. It is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Jefferys 1775
(orientation; north point; up is destination)


Each scroll of the strip map has a north point; N-S line, E-W line, North marked by a fleur de lys, east marked by a cross. Each scroll is printed showing a stretch of road from bottom to top.

Parker 1777
(orientation; compass rose; up is E)
A minimal compass rose is printed lower right. There are lines for the cardinal directions in a plain circle; North marked by a half fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top approximately, it's about NNW up. The canal runs roughly east-west across the wide sheet.

Bowles 1780
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; up is N; magnetic variation)


Printed on the left, in the English Channel, is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, lines for by points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
Rhumb lines are drawn across sea areas from the compass rose and four other centres; bold solid lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, dotted lines for false points, solid lines for by points. The centres are not arranged in any circle; the crossings of rhumb lines can be confusing in places.
At one of the centres, south of Wight, the vertical North line is labelled:-
True North
A line to the west, left, is labelled:-
Magnetic Meridian
and the angle labelled:-


Variation 21[d].
(I would take issue with the word meridian.)

Mackenzie 1780s
(orientation; north point; up is N; magnetic variation)
The map has a north point; a line marked with a fleur de lys for north. North is up on the sheet. Magnetic north i shown by a line with a half fleur de lys, the angle is labelled:-
Von. 23[degrees] 30[minutes] N.O.
There are no rhumb lines over the chart. Leading lines are labelled with their headings, eg:-
E. 1/4 N. 8[degrees] N.
N.E. 1/4 N. 5[degrees] N.

Bowles 1782
(orientation; north point; up is destination)


(page 103/104 scroll 3 mile 62-63)
The orientation of each strip is given by a north point; NS line and an EW line, North marked by a spear point, East marked by a cross.
The strips read upwards away from London. For the London to Southampton route from Bagshot up the sheet is south and south west, from Southampton to Salisbury up the sheet is north west.

Probst 1782
(orientation; north point; up is E; rhumb lines)
The map has a north point; N marked by a fleur de lys. And has rhumb lines drawn from five centres. It is printed with East at the top of the sheet.

Hogg 1784
(orientation; compass rose)


The map has a simple compass rose; a plain circle with lines for the cardinal directions, north marked by a fleur de lys, east by a cross, and dotted lines for the half cardinal directions.

Cary 1787
(title cartouche; map maker; orientation; compass rose)
Printed lower right is a simple cartouche laid across the compass rose a device that John Cary uses elsewhere. The map title is:-
HAMPSHIRE
Below the compass rose is:-
By JOHN CARY, Engraver.
Printed at the bottom is:-
London Published Jan 1st. 1793 by J. Cary, Engraver & Mapseller, Strand
The compass rose has no circle. It has star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, and lines for the false points. North is marked by a fleur de lys.

Lodge 1788
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the right is a compass rose; circle, star points for cardinal directions, lines for half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Cary 1789
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


The map has a compass rose with star points for cardinal and half cardinal points, and lines for the false points. North is marked by a fleur de lys; east is marked by an informal symbol. Map north is up on the sheet.

von Reilly c1789
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Aikin 1790
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose or north point. It is orientated with north at the top.

Tunnicliff 1791
(orientation; north point)
The map has a north point with a cross line. North is marked by a fleur de lys; the other cardinal points are labelled 'E', 'S', 'W'.

Tunnicliff 1791
(orientation; north point)
The map has a north point with a cross line. North is marked by a fleur de lys; the other cardinal points are labelled 'E', 'S', 'W'.

Baker 1792
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose, though it has latitude and longitude scales. It is printed with North at the top of the page.

Ptolemy 1793
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no indicator of orientation except the scales of latitude and longitude. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Faden 1796
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed lower right is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, north marked by the Prince of Wales's Feathers. The map is printed with north at the top of the sheet.

Heather 1797
(orientation; compass rose; rhumb lines; magnetic variation)
A primary compass rose is drawn lower centre in the sea south of the Isle of Wight. This rose has a star of pointers for the cardinal and half cardinal points, extended by bearing lines over the whole sea area - missing the land but continued in the Solent etc. There are dotted lines from the rose for the false points, and continuous lines for the by points; similarly extended. North is indicated by a fleur de lys, and is labelled:-
MAGNETIC NORTH / or North by the Compass
The compass rose is oriented for magnetic, compass, north. True north is shown by a line marked with half a fleur de lys, labelled:-
True North
The arc of the angle between true and compass north is labelled:-
Varn. 2 1/4 Pts. W.
The variation is
2.25x(360/32)=25.3125 degrees
A 'point' is a by point, an 1/32nd of a circle.
There are secondary compass roses drawn in the sea east and west of the Isle of Wight. These just haave lines; bold for cardinal and half cardinal directions, dotted for false points, light for by points; all extended over the sea areas. On each, magnetic north is marked by a fleur de lys, and labelled:-
North by Compass
True north is shown as before, and labelled:-
North of the World
The magnetic variation is labelled as before.

Knight 1797
(orientation; north point; up is N; magnetic variation)


Printed lower right (with the scale line) are a pair of north points. There is a vertical line with the right half of a fleur de lys marking North, labelled:-
Meridian
and a line 23 1/4 degrees West of North labelled:- Magnetic North. The chart is printed with 'true' north at the top of the sheet.

Marshall 1798
(orientation; compass rose)


The map has a very simple compass rose upper left of centre. There are lines for the cardinal directions in a double circle; north marked by a fleur de lys, east by a cross.

Knight 1799
(orientation; up is N; magnetic variation)
Printed lower right of centre is a north point; or rather two north points, each with half a fleur de lys, with the magnetic deviation:-
Varn. 23[degree] W.
between them. Up the page is current magnetic north.

Unknown 1800s
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Cary 1802
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page. There is no compass rose or north point.

Cooke 1802
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper left is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal directions, north marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with north at the top of the page.

Butters 1803
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper left is a north point; north marked by a fleur de lys, a cross line E-W. The north point is upside down, pointing south.

Laurie and Whittle 1806
(orientation; north point; up is destination)


Orientation is provided by a simple cross line, north marked by a spear point. The map is arranged 'up is out from London'; London is at the bottom, Portsmouth at the top of plate 3, London at the bottom, Salisbury at the top of plate 5.

Wilkes 1806
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed lower right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Potts 1809
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page. There is no compass rose or other indicator.

OS 1810s Old Series
(orientation; up is N)
Although the maps are printed with North at the top of the sheet, this 'up' is at a small angle to 'up' of the modern Ordnance Survey sheets.

Vancouver 1810
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose or north point; it is printed with North at the top of the page.

Wallis 1810
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed lower right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Arrowsmith 1814
(orientation; up is N)
There is no indicator of orientation except the latitude and longitude scales. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.
This is a thematic map for which orientation, scale, and coordinates are of little interest.

Cary 1815
(orientation; up is N)
There is no compass rose or other indicator of orientation. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Cundee 1815
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed upper left is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Smith 1815
(compass rose; orientation)
Printed upper right of centre is a compass rose. The map is printed with North at the top.

Wallis 1815
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Rowe 1816
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Hall 1820
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper left is a compass rose; tinted red or pink, no circle, star points for the cardinal directions, lines for the half cardinal, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Smith 1820
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed in a space in the Irish Sea is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Pinnock 1821
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed lower right is a compass rose; star points for the cardinal and half cardinal points, lines for the false points, North marked by a sort of arrowhead. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Post Office 1823
(orientation; up is N)
The map has north at the top of the sheets.

Greenwood 1826
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, lines for bye points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheets.

Pigot 1828
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper centre is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Darton 1830s
(orientation; up is N)
There is no compass rose. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Walker 1830
(orientation; up is N)
The map's orientation is 'obvious'. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Murray 1830
(orientation; compass rose)


Printed on the left above centre is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Teesdale 1830
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Lewis 1831
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the left is a compass rose; star points for cardinal, half cardinal and false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Cobbett 1832
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Orientation is shown by a north point; N-S line, E-W cross line, North is marked by a fleur de lys, the other cardinal points are labelled - E, S, W. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet, sort of.
BUT the map is so distorted that the orientation is of questionable value. It is stretched on a NW-SE axis and rotated some. It is quite the worst map of Hampshire I've come across - unless it is a completely unrecognised projection! Using a computer graphics program we have tried 'undistorting' the map by linear transformations. Two transformations have been tried; bringing four perimeter towns into alignment with where they 'should' be, and matching the county boundary to 'today's real' boundary. Both processes have there limitations. Both processes leave most of the towns well out of position. I do not believe there is an projection in use which we have failed to recognise.

Dawson 1832
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed on the left above centre is a simple north point; N-S line, E-W line, North marked by an arrow.

Tymms 1832
(orientation; north point; up is N)
Printed lower right is a north point; and an E-W line, N marked by an arrow and a cross (X). The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Duncan 1833
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the left is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Hall 1833
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper right is a north point; N-S line, E-W cross line, North marked by an arrowhead. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Pinnock 1833
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed lower right is a north point, N-S line, E-W cross line, North marked by a spear point. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Lewis 1835
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for the false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Pigot 1835
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed lower left is a north pint; N-S line with an arrow marking North, E-W cross line. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Moule 1836
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper left is a north point; N-S line; E-W cross line; North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Dower 1838
(orientation; up is N)
The map has north at the top.

Robson 1839
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed on the left is a compass rose; no circle, star points for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Hughes 1840
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed lower right on the south sheet is a north point; N-S line, North marked by an arrow; E-W cross line. The maps are printed with North at the top of the sheets.

Sheringham 1840s-50s
(orientation; compass rose; up is N; magnetic variation)


Printed lower left of centre and lower right are compass roses showing magnetic directions; no circle, bold lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for false points, dotted lines for by points, magnetic North marked by a half fleur de lys. The meridian through the rose is marked with a star, and the angle between the meridian and magnetic north labelled:-
Varn. 22 [degrees] 55 [minutes] W.
at 1d 5m W, and:-
Varn. 22 [degrees] 40 [minutes] W.
at 0d 40m W.
The chart is printed with [geographical] North at the top of the sheet. The centre of the rose, the fleur de lys, and the star are tinted orange.

Sporting Review 1842
(orientation; up is N)
Up on the page is north.

Ramble 1845
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper left is a north point; N-S line; North marked by a fleur de lys; E-W cross line. The map is printed with north at the top of the sheet.

Railway Chronicle 1846
(orientation; up is start)
The direction of travel is down the page, ie London is at the top, Southampton at the bottom. The traveller is advised to sit facing towards London, ie facing up the page, while he reads in the natural way down the page ... it makes good sense.
There are no clues to compass direction on the chart.

Collins 1850
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, decorated lines for cardinal and half cardinal points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Unknown 1850s
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the page. There is no compass rose or north point.

Day 1852
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper left is a compass rose; no circle, decorated lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by an arrow. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Cruchley 1856
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Philip 1857-1900
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no indicator of orientation except the graticule, the latitude and longitude grid. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Brannon 1859
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed on the left is a compass rose; no circle, star points and lines for the cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for the false points, North marked by an arrowhead (a sort of exploded fleur de lys). The map is printed with North at the top of the page.

Cassell, Petter and Galpin 1860s
(orientation; up is NW; up is NE; up is start)
Each map has a north point (or very simplified compass rose); N-S line, E-W cross line, short lines for the half cardinal directions, North marked by an arrow.
The orientation of each map is suited to the length of railway shown; start of the segment at the top, finish at the bottom. In practical terms this puts NE or NW at the top of a map. Up is judged by the labelling. One of the maps is printed sideways on the sheet to get it fitted in.

Raynbird c1860
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed on the right is a north point with an E-W cross line; North marked by an arrow. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Reynolds 1860
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper left below the title is a north point; N-S line, North marked by an arrow, and E-W cross line.

Unknown 1860s
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Dispatch 1863
(orientation; up is N)
The maps are printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Ramsay 1866
(orientation; up is N)
The map's orientation is indicated only by the latitude and longitude scales and grid. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Hughes 1868
(orientation; up is N)
The map has north at the top of the page; there is no north point.

Black 1870s
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose, it is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Weller 1870s
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no indicator of orientation, it is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Kelly 1875
(orientation; north point; up is N)


Printed upper right is a north point; N-S line, E-W cross line, North marked by a 'star' of 8 radiating lines. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Letts 1884
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)


Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Philip 1886
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose; it is printed with north at the top of the page as it is meant to be read. For Hampshire this is sideways, other maps are printed the other way on the double page spread, suiting their shape to the space.

Burt 1887
(orientation 7 up is n)
The map is carved with North at the top of the slab.

Bazaar 1890
(orientation; compass rose; up is N)
Printed left of centre is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Post Office 1890
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no compass rose or latitude and longitude scales. It is printed with north at the top of the page.

MacKenzie 1893
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no north indicator except the scales for latitude and longitude; it is printed with North at the top of the page. The fold of the sheet, running E-W across the map, suggests it was sideways in its atlas.

Fothergill 1900s
(orientation; north point; up is destination)
Nearly all circle maps have a north point; a N-S line with a short E-W line, North marked by a simple arrow. The circles and route in between are printed with the destination at the top of the sheet. The return journey alongside is up the other way; its text up the other way.

Fothergill 1900s
(orientation; up is NNW)
The map is presented on the slant, up is NNW, so that the route, London to Exeter, is down the middle of the long map.

Johnston 1900s
(orientation; up is N)
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Pratt 1905
(orientation; up is N)
The maps are printed with North at the top of each sheet,as defined by the label text. Some sheets are printed in 'landscape' and some in 'portrait' on the sheet.

Bacon 1906
(orientation; compass rose; up is destination; up is SW)
Printed half way up the side is a minimal compass rose; no circle, lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by an arrow head, labels N, E, W. The map is printed with the destination at the top of the sheet; SW at the top.

Players 1910
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no indicator of orientation; it is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

OS 1920s Popular Edition
(orientation; compass rose; magnetic variation; up is N)


Printed in the [probably] upper right border of the map, or perhaps in an otherwise blank sea area, is a compass rose; no circle, decorated lines for cardinal and half cardinal directions, North marked by an arrow and fleur de lys. A magnetic north line is also given accompanied by a statement like (sheet 132):-
Magnetic Varn. 15[degrees] 44[minutes] W Jan. 1925. Annual decrease 10[minutes] (not constant)

Amalgamated Press 1930s
(orientation; up is N)
The map has no indicator of orientation; it is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

Pike 1946
(orientation; up is destination)
The strip maps are drawn with the destination, away from London, at the top of the page. The line is plotted in the landscape, not straightened.

orientation

1570-1599
1600-1699
1700-1799
1800-1899
'70s
'80s
'90s
'00s
'10s
'20s
'30s
'40s
'50s
'60s
'70s
'80s
'90s
'00s
'10s
'20s
'30s
'40s
'50s
'60s
'70s
'80s
'90s
'00s
'10s
'20s
'30s
'40s
'50s
'60s
'70s
'80s
'90s
labelled borders, Latin
labelled borders, English
compass rose
N = fleur de lys
N = arrow, spearhead
N = Prince of Wales' feathers
E = cross
E = 3 balls
points labelled, NESW
points named, English
points named, Latin
north point
There are fashionable bits in the way a compass rose, or other orientation device, is shown. These have been ignored.


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