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Greenwood 1826
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NOTES from GREENWOOD'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1826

FA1965.589  
These notes are taken from the Map of the County of Southampton ie Hampshire, with the Isle of Wight, scale 1 mile to 1 inch, by C and J Greenwood and Nathaniel L Kentish, published by Greenwood, Pringle and Co, Regent Street, Pall Mall, London, 1826. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1965.589.
map type: HantsMap & Greenwood 1826
The map is a hand coloured steel plate engraving in six sheets; the examples studied have been mounted together, sectioned 10 pieces across by 6 up, folded for storage in a slip case. The map size is: wxh, sheet = 73x52cm each of the six original printed sheets; wxh, mounted map = 149x158.5cm; wxh, map = 1456x1567mm, the whole map as measured making no allowance for gaps in mounting. The border of the mounted map is a wavy version of the Ordnance Survey 'piano keys' design used on their Old Series one maps. The slip case is an elegant mock tooled leather bound book.

Greenwood's Mapping

Greenwood's survey used the scientific triangulation of the Ordnance Survey as a basis. He wrote, 1823:-
A century ago Surveys of Counties were made by measuring (I dare say laboriously enough) different districts, and laying them together regardless of their true Scientific bearings. But now the state of things is different. Science has opened her eyes upon an expanded field; and, like children correcting the errors of visionary delusion by a demonstration of a more substantial examination of things, we are at length taught to comprehend something of the constructive figure of our Earth, and to delineate with consistency, that portion of it we have been designed by Providence to inhabit.
But local topography was surveyed by Greenwood. His field surveyors were given a diagram of established points on which to plot the detail. The quality of surveying from this point on is not quite so thoroughly accurate.
Harley, J B: 1962: Christopher Greenwood County Map-Maker and his Worcestershire Map of 1822: Worcestershire Historical Society (Worcestershire)


MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    
swash lettering    

image snip from map

Printed upper left is a small riot of decorative letter styles, with swooping ascenders and descenders decorating the spare space:-
MAP OF the COUNTY of SOUTHAMPTON from an Actual Survey Made in the Years 1825 & 1826. BY C. & J. GREENWOOD, AND N. L. KENTISH. Most Respectfully Dedicated TO THE Nobility, Clergy & Gentry OF HAMPSHIRE, BY THE PROPRIETORS GREENWOOD, PRINGLE & Co. Regent St. Pall Mall London. PUBLISHED JUNE 15th. 1826.
The Ordnance Survey one maps, Old Series, were published before this map, and were available to the Greenwoods. I have not done a thorough comparison but do get a feeling that this map has copied from the OS map to some extent, it owes its basic shape to the accurate surveying of the official body. But the Greenwoods have done their own work; have been more careful with some details, place names and content. The overall appearance of the Greenwood maps is more attractive, and perhaps more readable, than the OS maps. The OS were not, as they are not, at the zenith of cartographic perfection. But do remember that convincing presentation is no guarantee of accurate content.
Nathaniel Lipscomb Kentish was an independent surveyor, based in Winchester, Hampshire, who set out to map the whole county at about 5 inches to 1 mile; very ambitious for a lone operator at that time. His project failed in 1824 but he did make 'an arrangement' with the Greenwoods in which he was involved in their survey; some editions of their map (this is, but not all others) mention Mr Kentish in the title credits. Further information about Kentish:-
Norgate, Martin: 2000: Notes from Kentish's Map of Hampshire: Hampshire CC Museums Service:: ISBN 1 85975 380 9

button see:- KENTISH1.txt
Embossed on the slip case spine:-
GREENWOOD'S MAP OF HAMPSHIRE

vignettes    
Printed lower right is a vignette:-
SOUTH EAST VIEW OF WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL
R Creighton delt. / W Woolnoth Sculpt.

orientation    
compass rose    
up is N    

image snip from map

Printed on the right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal, half cardinal, and false points, lines for bye points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheets.

scale line    
scale    

Printed lower left is a:-
image snip from map

SCALE OF STATUTE MILES.
chequered in miles, marked in quarter miles, labelled at miles, with a left extension. The 7+1 miles = 198.9 mm gives a scale 1 to 64730. The map scale is about:-
1 to 65000
1 inch to 1 mile
Using the scale of latitude another estimate can be got; 7 minutes latitude = 202.1 mm gives a scale 1 to 64261. The map scale is perhaps:-
1 to 64000
1 inch to 1 mile
Yet another estimate can be got from town positions, comparing to known town-town distances using DISTAB.exe. The map scale is about:-
1 to 64000
1 inch to 1 mile

index grid    
The national grid coordinate system has been laid over the map (this sectioned version with gaps) using some elementary arithmetic, aided by software for the calculations. See:-
button see:- GRW2NGR.txt

lat and long scales    
image snip from map

Scales of latitude and longitude are printed in the map borders, for a trapezoid or some sort of conical projection? chequered in minutes, labelled at 5 minute intervals. The bottom scale is labelled:-
Longitude West from Greenwich
Reading from the scales the
Longitude, Winchester = 1d 18 1/4m W
which agrees closely enough with the statement.
The map covers from 0d 41m to 1d 58m W, from 50d 32m to 51d 24m N; The whole of Hampshire, including the Christchurch area now Dorset, and the Isle of Wight.

table of symbols    
Printed lower left is an:-
image snip from map

EXPLANATION
the heading in decorative type.
Boundaries of Counties ... [circle dash line]
Boundaries of Hundreds ... [dot dash line]
Boundaries of Parishes ... [dashed line]
Markets Towns as ... SOUTHAMPTON [upright block caps]
Parishes as ... Thorley [upright lowercase]
Villages and other Places as ... Wellingham [italic lowercase]
Places that send members to Parliament ... [two stars attached to a town plan]
Turnpike Roads ... [double line, broader, light bold]
Cross Roads ... [double line, narrower, light light, maybe dotted]
Toll Bars ... T.B.
Churches & Chapels ... [maltese cross, or cross (+)]
Castles & Priories ... [dot and circle with X cross, or bold ?star]
Houses ... [blocks marked by roads]
Heaths & Commons ... [outline, dotted, perhaps by roulette]
Rivers & Brooks ... [wiggly lines]
Navigable Canals ... [triple line, light bold light]
Railways ... [line with very close cross lines]
Woods ... [outline, tree symbols and dotted ground cover]
Parks & Pleasure Grounds ... [outline with fence palings, dotted interior]
Hills & Rising Grounds ... [hachuring]
Wind & Water Mills ... [post mill symbol, rayed circle symbol]
Although dated 1826 the table of symbols includes railways, and this is not an obvious addition made later, it looks original. The first railway in Hampshire opened 1838. The first passenger railway, the Stockton and Darlington, opened 1825.

sea area    
sea plain    
buoys    
wrecks    
sandbanks    

The sea area is plain, though the coast form lines extend far into the offing. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
SPITHEAD
SOUTHAMPTON WATER
There is little detail in the sea area, but in Spithead there is the:-
image snip from map

Buoy of the Royal George
whose wreck is marked by a conical buoy. The ship sank in the late 18th century and was still a hazard to shipping in this busy road till the mid 19th century. Other buoys are shown in Southampton water, eg:-
Hythe Buoy
Weston Lodge Buoy
Shallows are mostly ignored, this map is not a chart, but some extensions of the foreshore are shown, as at the Winners off Langston Harbour. Some sandbanks are shown in Southampton water, eg:-
image snip from map

The Gymph
The Bar

coast line    
coast form lines    
foreshore    
coast appearance    
headlands    
harbours    
lighthouses    

image snip from map

The coast line is emphasised by form lines which are drawn decreasing across the foreshore, and then a new sequence decreasing further into the offing. In other places a narrower foreshore is just dotted. Where the coast has cliffs their appearance is drawn, or suggested, in perspective, perhaps with hachures behind. At river mouths, especially with a shapely foreshore, the engraving of the form lines is fascinating and attractive.
Some headlands are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
Gilkicker Point
At Hurst Spit a tower is drawn, labelled:-
image snip from map

Light Ho.
and off St Helens, Isle of Wight, is a drawing a ship with a light atop its mast, labelled:-
Light
On a cliff top south west of Milton is a:-
Preventive Station
The large harbours are labelled:-
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
LANGSTONE HARBOUR
and one small harbour is named:-
Hell Head Haven
south of Titchfield.
In the harbours the shallows and channels are drawn and emphasised by form lines; islands might be labelled, some channels might be labelled.
Although some care has been taken to prevent hachures from obscuring other features and labelling, the form lines often do make it difficult to read other stuff on the map.

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

Various of the old castles and more recent fortifications relating to the coastal defence of Hampshire are shown:-
Hurst Castle [dot]
image snip from map

Calshot Castle [small fortification]
Castle [at Netley]
Fort Monkton [blocks]
[fortifications at Gilkicker Point]
Haslar Hospital [large building]
Blockhouse [at the entrance to Portsmouth Harbour]
[fortifications around Gosport]
Burrow Fort [on an island]
[fortifications around Priddys Hard]
Block House [on estuary S of Fareham]
[fortifications north shore of Portsea Island]
[fortification Cosham end of Ports Bridge]
image snip from map

[fortifications around naval dockyard]
[fortifications around Portsmouth]
Southsea Castle [fortification]
Lumps Fort
[fortification]
Cumberland Fort [large fortification]

rivers    
ponds    
bridges    
fords    
ferries    

image snip from map

River estuaries and broad reaches of river are drawn by a double line, suggesting their true width, the line to the north west perhaps bolder suggesting the shadow of the bank. Higher up rivers are drawn by wiggly line tapering upstream. Most rivers in the county, their braiding, tributaries, etc, are shown. Some are labelled, though this might be hidden in form lines, eg:-
Lymington River
River Avon
White Water
Emborne River
The mouth of the Stour and Avon at Christchurch is labelled:-
AVON MOUTH
The Test is labelled:-
River Test
north of Mottisfont, and again about Longstock. The Anton is labelled:-
River Anton
about Goodworth Clatford. The Bourne Rivulet and River Dever are not labelled; but the Greenwoods seem to have got the names of these rivers 'right', or at least matching today's accepted terms, in contrast to the Ordnance Survey.
A river plain might be dotted, perhaps by a roulette, to indicate meadowland.
image snip from map

The streams drawn north of Ringwood suggest the artificial lades of water meadows.
Ponds are drawn in outline with from lines, perhaps labelled, eg:-
Fleet Pond
Woolmer Pool
The meadow area around the latter is labelled:-
Peat Moor
Alresford Pond is drawn but not labelled. On Beaulieu Heath is the:-
Flash Pond
The inclusion of this detail, also shown by the OS, is the sort of thing that suggests copying; the better naming of the Test parts suggests independent work.
Bridges are indicated by a road crossing and interrupting a stream, some are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Boldre Bridge
Wash Bridge [Enborne]
Knights Bridge [Enborne]
Iford Bridge
While not reliable (what map ever is?) as a gazetteer of bridge names, the map is a rich source for them. Which is so for other features.
Fords are not clearly recognisable.
Potters Ford
might be a settlement [that was by a ford] or a ford, east of Lyndhurst.
Chapman Ford
seems to have one stream crossing over the road.
The pier at Hythe is drawn clearly, and that on the east bank of the Itchen near Southampton. But the routes of these ferries are not marked, nor are they labelled.

relief    
hill hachuring    

image snip from map

Relief is indicated by hill hachuring. Like all hachure systems this might give a local sense of where slopes are, but gives no overall sense of the county's shape. Locally dramatic features do not always show up; where is the hanger from above Oakhanger village round to Selborne? The hachuring is much better than some other maps of the period, and care is taken not to obscure other features and labels. Some hills are labelled, eg:-
Codington Hill [S of Kingsclere]
Ports Down
Worthy Down
Buckholt Hills
Buster Hill
and some valleys are labelled too, eg:-
Bedlam Bottom [SE of Kings Worthy]
Halcom Bottom [SE of Chilcomb]

beacons    
Beacons are long forgotten. But some of the old beacons are still remembered by hill names, eg:-
Beacon Hill [E of St Catherine's Hill, Winchester]
Beacon Hill Fm. [alongside the hill N of Exton]
Beacon Hill [W of Burghclere]
Popham Beacon

woods    
forests    
trees    
vegetation    

Woodland is indicated by groups of deciduous tree symbols, in several sizes, with dotting to suggest rough ground or undergrowth. The groups might be enclosed in an outline or unfenced, and might be labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Cheriton Wood
Clatford Oak Coppice
Arnolds Copse
Sandys Inclosure
Pheasantry
NEW FOREST
WOOLMER FOREST
Which of these labels are names and which are just descriptive is an interesting question.
As well as woods some individual trees might be noticed, eg:-
Three Yew Trees [NE of Martyr Worthy]
with three tree symbols.
image snip from map

Wallers Ash
Bound Oak
ie boundary oak, which are not by an obvious tree symbol, and:-
Tangley Clumps
which labels several groups of trees.
Other vegetation might be noticed, heath and common are dotted areas, and might be labelled, eg:-
Wellesleys Warren
Headly Common
Yateley Heath

parks    
Parks are drawn in outline with fence palings, and perhaps ?ornamental trees, the interior dotted and tinted green. The interior might show a great house, roads or rides, woodland, ponds, streams, etc. A park might be labelled with a name, or by the name of its house, eg:-
image snip from map

Highclere Park
The Vine
Heckfield House
Stratfield Park

county    
image snip from map

The county boundary is a circle dash line, which is also used to mark the boundary between adjacent counties. Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
B E R K S H I R E
The detached part of Hampshire in Sussex is shown, not labelled, but drawn in detail like the rest of the county. Very little is drawn outside the county boundary, just a few villages are marked, though Farnham is plotted with roads and buildings. The detached parts of Wiltshire on the northern boundary near Silchester are shown.

hundreds    
image snip from map

Hundred boundaries are a dot dash line. The hundred areas are labelled, eg:-
PASTRO HUND
with detached parts labelled as:-
IN EVINGAR HUNDRED
The size of lettering is adjusted to fit the available space.

parishes    
image snip from map

Parish boundaries are dashed lines. The parish is named by the corresponding village with a church marked by a maltese cross. Detached 'parish' areas are labelled as:-
In Sure Parish
Extra Par.
extraparochial areas are just one complication of the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes. It is quite hard to follow parish boundaries among other details to work out what parish a place is in. It would be very hard to follow all the boundaries to develop a parish map of the county. These are not uncommon problems for maps at this scale (and led to the OS abandoning parish boundaries on the Popular Edition one inch maps to the dismay of some users). Parishes, ecclesiastical or civil, remain an important subdivision of a county for administrative and indexing purposes - notice the contrast of political and geographical concepts which are too often muddled.

settlements    
Settlements are shown by blocks, or groups of blocks, perhaps arranged on streets making a town plan. Places are differentiated by style of lettering as declared in the table of symbols.
city    
town    
groups of blocks on streets; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER
image snip from map

FAREHAM
Notice that Southampton, for example, has two stars indicating it sends two members to Parliament. The stars are missing off some towns, eg Winchester.

village     blocks grouped on roads, and perhaps a cross; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Lower Wallop
Monkston
This is often the label for a parish, the church being shown by a maltese cross. Some places have a label as:-
Parsonage
Vicarage
but its not always clear which house is meant.

hamlet     some blocks on or off the roads; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Middle Wallop
Oakhanger
Many other features are labelled with this style of text.

farm     A farm is, perhaps, the smallest sort of 'settlement', marked by a block or more, and labelled, eg:-
Frenchon Fm. [by West Worldham]
Pound Fm. [by Chawton]


roads    
road distances    
turnpike roads    

image snip from map

Roads are drawn by a double line, solid or dotted indicating fenced and unfenced edges. Broader roads, with one line bold, are turnpike roads; narrower roads are cross roads.
Toll gates are not marked across a road, but are labelled, eg:-
T.B.
Road distances are given in figures alongside the most important roads. For example the London to Lands End road is numbered 15, 14, 13, ... from about Blackwater towards Basingstoke, then 1, 2, ... to Whitchurch, then 1, 2, .. from there to Andover, from there starting at 1 yet again westwards.
Road destinations outwith the county might be labelled, eg:-
to London
From Amesbury
From Salisbury
to Newbury
usually to a well known place, but notice:-
From Horton Inn
using a more vulgar way point.
Some road junctions are labelled, eg:-
Three Legged Cross
for a fiveways junction east of Ashmansworth, and:-
Lobcombe Corner
just outwith Hampshire in Wiltshire.
A few roads have names too, eg:-
Hog Lane [NW of Kingsclere]
Park Lane [E of Silchester]
and:-
Ladys Walk
is noticed east of Andover.

railways    
The table of symbols includes a symbol for railways; there were no railways in Hampshire till 1830s, the first opened 1838.

canals    
Canals are drawn by a curvy triple line, light bold light. Canals have more bridges than rivers, the company had to respect existing rights of way. The following canals can be found on the map:-
image snip from map

Basingstoke Canal     from Basingstoke, where there is a:-
Wharf
through the:-
Tunnel
shown by a bold dotted line at Greywell, to the county boundary near Aldershot, where it crosses the Blackwater River by an:-
Aqueduct
No winding points seem to be shown; there is another wharf on Aldershot Heath; all four flashes on Eel Moor are shown. The canal is labelled:-
Basingstoke Canal

Andover Canal     from Andover to Redbridge, where the exit to the Test is not clear. No locks are shown; there are lots of road and accommodation bridges. The canal is labelled:-
Andover and Stockbridge Canal

Salisbury and Southampton Canal     from the county boundary near West Dean to the Andover Canal near Mottisfont; also from Redbridge to the outskirts of Southampton. The canal is labelled:-
Salisbury & Southampton Canal

Itchen Navigation     from the head of the Itchen estuary at South Stoneham up the Itchen Valley to Twyford, from whence the drawing is just river to Winchester. At least two locks are shown, each by a double arrow across the canal pointing uphill, as do the lock gates, just north of Mansbridge. The canal is labelled:-
Itchen Navigation

Titchfield Canal     The canal is not drawn by the canal symbol, but it can be recognised from the village down to The Solent at Hell Head Haven.


miscellaneous    
The following features have been noticed on the map. A through search for any type of feature has not been made; there is more to find of these and other features.

mills    
water mills    
windmills    

Water mills are marked by a neat rayed circle across or by a stream, labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Cheriton Mill
Yateley Mill
Paper Mill [SW of Whitchurch]
Silk Mills [in Andover]
Windmills are marked by a post mill symbol, whether they are a post mill or a tower mill, labelled as:-
image snip from map

Hambledon Mill
Kimpton Mill
Ibthorp Mill

salterns    
Salterns are marked by an outline with cross hatching representing the salt pans. ON the coast by Lymington a large area of salt pans is labelled:-
image snip from map

SALT WORKS
elsewhere these are labelled:-
Saltern

brickworks    
By the River Meon north of Titchfield are:-
Brick Kilns
and north of the town:-
Fareham Kilns

inns    
Some inns are noticed on turnpike and cross roads. It is not always possible to known in a group of blocks for a village, which building is the pub. Inns like:-
image snip from map

Deluge Hut [SW of Crawley]
Leckford Hut
Red Lion [Oakhanger]
P.Ho. [S of Alresford]

race courses    
On Worthy Down there is an oval dotted track labelled:-
image snip from map

Winchester Race Course
with a:-
Betting Stand
at the west end. North east of Lyndhurst, and on Southampton Common, are labels:-
Race Course

telegraphs    
semaphore telegraphs    

Labelled at the east end of Portsdown is:-
Semaphore
On hengistbury Head there is a:_
Signal House
but this is not part of the telegraph system.

monuments    
Some monuments are noticed, eg:-
image snip from map

Nelson Monument [Portsdown, drawing of a pillar]
Farley Monument
Rufus's Stone [drawing of stone]

follies    
South east of Longstock is:-
The Folly
and:
Floods Folly
is shown south west of Stratfield Saye.

workhouses    
South east of Headly is a:-
Poor House

gibbets    
Gibbets are drawn by a post, cross bar, things dangling from at each end ... Eg:-
image snip from map

Gibbet
south of Bishops Waltham and on Parley Common.

posts    
East of Bransgore is:-
Winkton Post
drawn like a milestone.

pounds    
A pound might be shown, eg:-
Pound
near Shipton Bellinger, and notice:-
Pound Fm.
by Chawton.

antiquities    
tumuli    
hillforts    

Tumuli are drawn by a circle of hachures, singly or in groups, eg:-
image snip from map

Barrows [Martin parish?]
Tumuli [lots, Petersfield Heath]
Barrow [Hartford Bridge Flats]
A larger ring of embankments drawn by hachures marks a hillfort, eg:-
image snip from map

Bury Hill
Deanbury Hill
Ladle Hill

antiquities    
roman roads    
roman towns    
roman villas    

South of Kingsclere is labelled:-
Roman Road to Silchester
and at the village the outline of the roam town, thew walls that still stand now, are drawn. South of Crondall, Upper Swanthrop, is a square labelled:-
image snip from map

Tessellated Pavement
sign of a roman villa.

mazes    
A hill north of Breamore is labelled:-
Mizaze Hill


Hampshire Towns

The following of the '21' Hampshire market towns are shown, labelled as:-
Alton
Andover
Basingstoke
Bishops Waltham
Christ Church
Fareham
Fordingbridge
Gosport
Havant
Kingsclere
Lymington
New Alresford
Odiham
Petersfield
Portsmouth
Ringwood
Romsey
Southampton
Stockbridge
Whitchurch
Winchester

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HantsMap Notes -- GRNWOOD2.txt
MN: 25.7.2003
last edit: 1.9.2003