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Saxton 1575
 
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Map, Southamtoniae, ie Hampshire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by Christopher Saxton, London, engraved by Leonardus Terwoort, Antwerp, Belgium, 1575, published 1579-1645.

Published in 'An Atlas of England and Wales by Christopher Saxton. London. 1579.'
The 1575 map carries the royal arms, of Elizabeth I, and the coat of arms of Thomas Seckford with his motto 'Pestis Patria Pigrities' -- 'idleness is the plague of the country'; there are no roads and no hundreds.
The 1579 atlas has a frontispiece portrait of Elizabeth I, a map of England, and includes a count of cities, bishoprics, market towns, castles, parishes, churches, rivers, bridges, chases, forests and parks, in each county; the atlas size is 9 1/4 x 14 3/4 ins.
Christopher Saxton was born 1542 or 1544 in Dunningley, or Wakefield, Yorkshire, and was latterly an estate surveyor. The survey for the Hampshire map was done with the patronage of Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests to Elizabeth I; it is thus an officially sponsored map, one of a series for the whole country. Saxton died after about 1606.
The map sheets were published in various impressions with different watermarks in the paper; watermarks of a bunch of grapes are thought to be the earliest, perhaps as early as 1565, crossed arrows about 1588, kneeling saint with a cross after 1600. An early state of the map has no labels in the borders, fewer trees in parks, an no motto below Seckford's arms. A second state has the labels, the motto noted above, and new trees in 29 parks. A third state has a new motto, Seckford's changed it in 1576 to 'Industria naturam ornat' -- 'hard work improves on nature', and the decorative panel over the Isle of Wight has the map maker's name. There are various other states; in particular adding 5 villages, Beauworth, Bighton, Kilmiston, Bramdean, and Chilcomb, also Alresford Pond, and a second label for the River Itchen.
Skelton suggests that, magnetic north being roughly at the top, it might be that a county was swung a little to fit it to the page.

Published in 'The Maps of all the Shires in England, and Wales. Exactly taken and truly described by Christopher Saxton. And graven at the Charges of a private Gentleman for the publicke good. Now newly Revised, Amended, and Reprinted. Printed for William Web at the Globe in Cornehill, 1645.'
In the 1645 atlas the map title is HAMPSHIRE and the date is changed from 1575 to 1642; unlike a number of counties Hampshire does not have the arms of Elizabeth I replaced by those of Charles I; this late publication probably arose from a demand for county maps consequent on the Civil War.
Other changes were made about 1665. And an altered version of the map is published from about 1689, see Lea 1689.
Summarising, the map plate was later in possession of, and perhaps altered by:- William Webb, from 1642, dated 1642; unknown mapseller, 1665; Philip Lea, about 1683-93, additional features; George Willdey, about 1720; Thomas Jeffreys, about 1749; C Dicey and Co, about 1770.
 
scale line:-  scale line image 
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example:-  map -- HMCMS:FA2002.22
map feature:-  title cartouche & drape cartouche & coat of arms (royal and family) & picture frame border & labelled borders & up is N & scale line & index grid (scales prepared, but no grid, a..m across and a..m down left side, covering the area of the county only) & sea pecked & sea monsters & ships & coastal defence & castles & rivers & bridges & relief & hillocks & beacons & forests & woods & parks & mills & windmills & county & swash lettering & hundreds & settlements & roads & inset map (town plan, Winchester)
inscription:-  printed -- scroll cartouche HAMPSHIRE / by / C: Saxton corrected & many / Aditions by P: Lea
inscription:-  printed -- bottom Christophorus Saxton descripsit
inscription:-  printed -- over/below scale line Scale Miliarum / LEONARDUS TERWOORT ANTVERPIANUS SCULPSIT
scale line:-  10 miles = 83.3 mm
map type:-  HantsMap -- Lea 1689
map type:-  HantsMap -- Saxton 1575
dimension:-  wxh, map = 435x396mm
scale = 1 to 190000 ? (1 to 193199 from scale line, wrongly assuming a statute mile)
scale = 1 to 240000 ? (from town positions using DISTAB.exe)

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reference:-  Saxton, Christopher: 1579: Atlas of England and Wales: (London)
: 1645: Maps of all the Shires in England, and Wales: Web, William (London)
Fordham, H G, Sir: 1928: Christopher Saxton of Dunningley, his life and work: (Leeds, Yorkshire)
Laxton, Paul: : 250 Years of Mapmaking in the County of Hampshire 1575 to 1826
Lynam, E (author of introduction): 1934 & 1939: Atlas of England and Wales, the Maps of Christopher Saxton engraved 1574-79 (facsimile): British Museum
Whitaker, H: 1939: Later Editions of Saxton's Maps: Imago Mundi: 3: pp.72-86
Evans, Ifor M & Lawrence, Heather: 1979: Christopher Saxton, Elizabethan Mapmaker: Wakefield Historical Publications & Holland Press (Wakefield, Yorkshire)
Tyack, Sarah & Huddy, John: 1980: Christopher Saxton and Tudor Mapmaking: British Library (London)
also see:- 
button  related map type -- Lea 1689
button  map type Saxton 1575 -- menu of resources
maps:-  HMCMS Map Collection   (scanned item in bold)
button  HMCMS:BWM550 -- reproduction map
button  HMCMS:FA2002.22 -- map
button  HMCMS:FA2002.26 -- map
button  HMCMS:FA2002.79 -- map
button  HMCMS:KD1996.1 -- map
button  HMCMS:R274 -- reproduction map
button  private collection (37) -- frontispiece

MN: 24.12.2001
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