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Hughes 1840
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NOTES from HUGHES JOURNEY MAP OF HAMPSHIRE, 1849

B1990.1004.1  
These notes are made from The Journey Map of Hampshire by William Hughes, 1849 published in the Hampshire and Isle of Wight volume in a series called The Journey Book of England, the Hampshire and Isle of Wight volume, by Charles Knight, from 1841. The two sheet map studied is in the Library Collection of Hampshire CC Museum Service, item HMCMS:B1990.1004.1.
map type: HantsMap & Hughes 1840

BOOK TITLE

THE JOURNEY BOOK OF ENGLAND. HAMPSHIRE; INCLUDING THE ISLE OF WIGHT. WITH THIRTY-TWO ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD, AND AN ILLUMINATED MAP OF THE COUNTY. LONDON: CHARLES KNIGHT & CO., LUDGATE STREET. MDCCCXLI
The map is printed in two sheets, south and north divisions of the county. One plate is loose; both plates are folded into the book near the beginning, and have become badly, wrongly, creased and are getting torn.
title    
map maker    
publisher    

The title is printed upper left of the south sheet:-
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THE JOURNEY MAP OF HAMPSHIRE.
The two sheets have sheet titles:-
SOUTHERN DIVISION OF HAMPSHIRE
NORTHERN DIVISION OF HAMPSHIRE
printed top centre.
At the bottom centre is:-
London, Published, December 1, 1840, by Charles Knight & Co, Ludgate Street.
At the bottom right of each sheet is:-
W, Hughes
who probably drew the maps, probably engraved the main plate and might have been involved in the lithograph plates. The map appears to have been printed in black on white from a copper plate engraving, the detail is fine. It has been coloured in areas by lithographic printing: the county is allover tan brown with roads shown reversed out in white; adjacent counties are diagonally shaded a light tab, the sea is horizontally shaded blue, parks are green. Errors in registration of the printings can be spotted easily. But also notice that the planning of the engraved and lithograph plates might not always agree; road edges are engraved line and can be seen to be different from the reversed out areas of the litho plate. The map is described as illuminated - meaning coloured? - on the title page of the book.

orientation    
north point    
up is N    

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Printed lower right on the south sheet is a north point; N-S line, North marked by an arrow; E-W cross line. The maps are printed with North at the top of the sheets.

lat and long scales    
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Both sheets have latitude and longitude scales for a rectangular projection printed in the borders; divided at one minute intervals, labelled at ten minute intervals.
The bottom scale is labelled:-
Longitude West from Greenwich
The two maps include from 0d 49m to 1d 55m W, from 50d 36m to 51d 24m North; the whole of Hampshire and the Christchurch are of Dorset, and the Isle of Wight.

scale line    
scale    

Both sheets have a scale line:-
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Scale of English Miles
The scale is divided and labelled at 1 mile intervals. The 10 miles = 57.6 mm and 57.2 mm on the two sheets, giving an averaged scale 1 to 280374 assuming a statute mile, ie the map scale is about:-
1 to 280000 ?
4.5 miles to 1 inch

sea area    
sea shaded    

The sea is shaded horizontally blue. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
ENGLISH CHANNEL
Christchurch Bay
The Solent
Spithead
Southampton Water

coast line    
coast appearance    
lighthouses    

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The coast is just an engraved line. In places the coast appearance, eg cliffs, is drawn, as in Christchurch Bay. There is also a dotted foreshore line, whichshows channels in the harbours.
Some coastal features are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
Needs Ore Point
Gillkicker point
Harbours are clearly drawn, and some are labelled:-
Portsmouth Harbour
Langston Harbour
but not the smaller havens.
A lighthouse is labelled at Hurst:-
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Light House

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

The old and newer defences along the coast are marked, labelled:-
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Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
Sth. Sea Castle
Cumberland Fort
Artillery style polygonal fortifications are shown at Portsmouth, Portsea, Gosport and along the north shore of Portsea Island. Fortifications are suggested by the shape of Cumberland Fort.

rivers    
bridges    
ponds    

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Rivers are drawn by a double wiggly line, which becomes a bold or less bold single line further inland. Braiding and islands are indicated. Many rivers are labelled, eg:-
Riv. Avon
River Itchin
River Anton, or Test
Bridges are indicated by an interuption to the river where a road crosses; the registration is sufficiently good (remember that roads are shown reversed out ie white on colour from the litho stone for the county area colour, and do not have engraved edges) to match roads to crossings. A bridge might be labelled, eg:-
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Hartford Bre.
A pond might be drawn in outline, with blue shading, and labelled, eg:-
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Woolmer Pond
Fleet Pond

relief    
hill hachuring    
spot heights    

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Relief is shown by hill hachuring, and might be labelled, eg:-
Portsdown, 447
Butser Hill, 917
The figure is a height in feet. A few other hills are named, eg:-
Old Winchester Hill
St Catherine's Hill

woods    
forests    

Woods and forests are shown by small bushes and trees and horizontal dotted lines to indicate undergrowth. This marking is done in many parks. Some forests are labelled, eg:-
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Forest of Bere
Alice Holt Forest
which have trees, and, for example:-
Woolmer Forest
which, correctly, doesn't have trees.
Some woodland is shown as a small enclosure which could be confused with a park, eg:-
Pamber Forest

parks    
Parks are shown by a line enclosing an area of trees etc, coloured green. Only some parks are labelled, eg:-
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Bramshill Park
Warnborugh Park [sic]
Some of these areas are woodland enclosures, nuut these are usually not coloured

county    
electoral divisions    
table of divisions    

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The county boundary is an engraved dotted line, and the county area is coloured tan, printed from a separate litho plate. The external part of Hampshire now part of West Sussex, around Ambersham, is shown. Adjacent counties are shaded light tan, and labelled, eg:-
WILTSHIRE
Rivers and a few settlements are drawn outside the county.
The north and south electoral divisions are bounded by a fine dotted line; the two sheets represent the two divisions. The same sort of line is used to divide the county into smaller electoral areas. These areas are labelled in roman numerals, keyed to a table of these divisions on the south sheet, eg:-
References to the Divisions.
Odiham ........ I
Basingstoke ... II
etc.

settlements    
streets    
distances from London    

Settlements are shown by blocks, singly for the smallest, grouped into streets of buildings for the largest. A cross marks villages.
city     streets of blocks; labelled with upright block caps, eg:-
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WINCHESTER / 61 1/2

town     streets of blocks; mostly labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
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Odiham / 40
Lymington / 88
but also note, in upright block caps:-
PORTSMOUTH / 72
SOUTHAMPTON / 77
The figures by town names are the distances from London. Explanatory text under the title on the south sheet:-
The Figures appended to the Market Towns shew their distance in Miles from London ...

village     a cross (+); labelled in italic lowercsae text, eg:-
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Selbourne
Brockenhurst
Chawton has a double cross (like a cross of Loraine)

hamlet     single block; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
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Oakhanger
Finchdean
This symbol might mark other small features.


roads    
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Roads are shown reversed out, white on tan on one of the lithograph plates; there are engraved double lines, but these are very feint. The registration between printings from the engraved and litho plates is moderately good but the small errors are made worse by the lack of exact agreement between what was engraved and what was drawn on the litho plate. The method of printing prevents the roads interfering with the clarity of other features. Roads are differentiated by width. An explanation printed under the title on the south sheet:-
... The Roads are indicated by the White Lines which cross the Map.
It is possible to pick out major routes fairly easily:-
Blackwater, Basingstoke, Whitchurch, Andover, westwards towards Bath, Barnstable, or Lands End via Salisbury.
Basingstoke, Sutton Scotney, Stockbridge, westwards via Salisbury.
Basingstoke, Winchester, Southampton.
Southampton, Romsey, westwards.
Farnham, Alton, New Alresford, Winchester.
Winchester, Stockbridge, westwards.
Alton, Meon Valley, Gosport.
Alton, Petersfield, Horndean, Portsmouth.
(Surrey,) Petersfield, Horndean, Portsmouth.
Newbury, Basingstoke, Alton, Petersfield, eastwards.
Southampton, Fareham, Havant, eastwards via Chichester.
ETC; this is a quick review, not a definitive list!

railways    
The first railways in Hampshire are shown, overprinted in red, named in black engraved text; stations labelled:-
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Station
Two railways are shown (remember that the routes are declared and authorised earlier than the date of opening):-
London and Southampton Railway     opened 1840; from Surrey near Farnborough, stations at Winchfield, Basingstoke, near Popham ie Micheldever, Winchester, and Southampton.
London & Southwestern Railway

London and Southampton Railway     opened 1842; from a junction at Bishopstoke, through Fareham to Gosport; no stations marked.
Gosport Junction Railway


canals    
Canals are shown as a bold line, and perhaps labelled. The following canals are shown:-
Basingstoke Canal     from Basingstoke to the Surrey border, labelled:-
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Basingstoke Canal

Andover Canal     from Andover to Redbridge; labelled:-
Andover Canal

Salisbury and Southampton Canal     from near Salsibury to join the Andover Canal near Mottisfont, and from redbridge through Southampton, to the River Itchen; labelled:-
Branch of Canal to Salisbury (incomplete)

Itchen Navigation     from Winchester to the head of the Itchen estuary near South Stoneham.

Portsmouth and Arundel Canal     across Portsea Island, labelled:-
Canal

Titchfield Canal     from Titchfield to The Solent near Hillhead.


miscellanneous    



hospitals    
South of Gosport is:-
Haslar Hospital

monuments    
At the west end of Portsdown is:-
Nelson's Monument

race courses    
A race course is shown as an oval double line north of Kings Worthy:-
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Race Course
To the NW of Stockbridge is:-
Stockbridge Race Ground
etc.

antiquities    
hillforts    
tumuli    

A hillfort might be drawn by a double dotted ring, and labelled, eg:-
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Deanbury Hill
On Toot Hill there is:-
Anct. Entrnt.
And tumuli are noticed by small circles, as:-
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North east of Horndean.

antiquities    
roman roads    
roads    

Some roman roads are labelled, eg:-
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Roman Road
For example between Silchester and Salisbury. Also labelled is:-
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Harrow Way

iron works    
The iron works ate Sowley has become
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Sowley Forge

salterns    
South west of Lymington the salterns are drawn, but not labelled:-
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HantsMap Notes -- HUGHES1.txt
MN: 8.2.2000
last edit: 24.5.2003