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Kitchin 1751 large
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NOTES from KITCHIN'S large MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1751

CRH1958.90  
These notes are made from a copy of Thomas Kitchin's large map of Hampshire, 1751. The item studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museum Service, item HMCMS:CHR1958.90.
map type: HantsMap & Kitchin 1751 large
This example of the map is sectioned for folding, mounted on ?linen, to be kept in a slip case.

MAP FEATURES

title cartouche    
monumental cartouche    
map maker    
publisher    

The title is written on a monumental block of stone, between carved drapery:-
image snip from map

A NEW Improved MAP of / HAMPSHIRE / from the best SURVEYS & INTELLIGENCES / Divided into its / HUNDREDS / Shewing the several ROADS and true / Measured Distances between Town and Town / ALSO / the Rectories & Vicarages the Parks and / Seats of the Nobility & Gentry with / other useful Particulars / Regulated by ASTRONL. OBSERVATIONS. / By T, Kitchin Geographer.
Beside and before the block of stone are trees and bushes, a bit of thatched roof, bee skep on a shelf, a three masted square rigged ship off shore, fishing nets, a basket of ?oysters, two large round flat ?cheeses, a rake, sheaf of wheat, sickle. a dead ?boar, anchor, etc etc.
Bottom centre of the sheet is:-
Printed Per R: Sayer in Fleet Street, Carrington Bowles in St. Pauls Church Yard, & R Wilkinson No.58 Cornhill

dedication    
coat of arms    
map maker    
scroll cartouche    

A scroll cartouche surmounted by the coat of arms of the Paulet Family, has the dedication:-
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To the Most Noble / Charles Pawlet, / Duke of Bolton. / Knight of the Garter. / Lord Lieutenent of the County of SOUTHAMPTON / This MAP is dedicated by His Grace's / Most Obedt. humble Servt. / Thos. Kitchin.
The family motto is given under the coat of arms:-
AIMEZ LOYAUTE
ie Love Loyalty.

orientation    
compass rose    

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There is a compass rose. This is a simple design; a circle with N-S line and E-W cross line, marking the four cardinal points, North is marked with a fleur de lys, East By a cross.

scale line    
scale    

There is a scale line of 12 miles, chequered at 1/4 then 1/2 then 1 mile intervals. Labelled:-
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British Statute Miles 69 to a Degree.
The 12 miles = 100.4mm giving a scale 1 to 192352 assuming a modern mile, scale about:-
1 to 190000
3 miles to 1 inch
Another estimate of scale can be made from town positions, comparing known town-town distances using DISTAB.exe. The map scale is about:-
1 to 190000
3 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
The borders of the map have latitude and longitude scales, oblique to the sheet and borders of the map. These are chequered at 1 minute intervals, labelled at degrees and 30 minutes horizontally, at degrees and 15, 30, 45 minutes vertically. The bottom scale is labelled:-
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Longitude W. from London.
More notes about lat and long scales see:-
button see:- KIT2LLS.txt

index grid    
This map has no index grid. Calculations have been made to overlay the National Grid system on the map using OLDMAPS.exe software, see:-
button see:- KIT2NGR.txt

table of symbols    
At the lower left is an:-
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EXPLANATION
The Market Towns & Villages on the Roads, are Ichnographically laid down.
The Parliamentary Boroughs have Stars annexed to them.
The Market Days are annexed to their respective Towns.
Vicarages [circle, cross, 'V']
Rectories [circle, cross, R]
Post Stages [line and crescent]
Charity Schools [cross ?pattee]
Religious Houses [line and tilde, perhaps an episcopal crook]
Parks [ring of palings]
Villages [circle]
Gentlemens Seats [circle and flag]
The Direct and principal Cross Roads are Marked where Open or Heathy thus [double dotted line] and the Distances between Market Towns thereon, are laid down in Measured Miles and Furlongs.
NB A Furlong is the eighth part of a Mile.

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
Haling Bay
Spit Head
ENGLISH CHANNEL

coast line    
coast form lines    
harbours    

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The coast is drawn with form lines, continued into harbours and river estuaries. Some harbours are labelled, eg:-
Langston Harbour
Lymington Hav.
Christ Church Harb.
but not Portsmouth Harbour!

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

Many of the old castles are marked and labelled:-
Hurst C.
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Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
Worth Castle
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South Sea C.
Block H.
Some of these are marked with just a circle; others have a drawing of a castle, towers etc.
Polygonal artillery fortifications are drawn around Portsmouth:-
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and to the north of Ports Bridge, labelled:-
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A Fort
Inland castles are drawn at Malwood and Odiham.

rivers    
bridges    

Rivers are shown by wiggly lines tapering inland. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
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Beauley R
Braiding might be shown, for example south of Stockbridge:-
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and ponds might be shown, eg:-
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Mill Pond
Bridges are implied by roads crossing and interupting a stream. Some are labelled, eg:-
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Ivy Br.
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Red bridge
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at Christchurch, the road narrowing over the bridges.
clearly showing two crossings over the 'Tees R' ie River Test. A bridge might be shown without there being a road, eg:-
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relief    
hillocks    

Relief is indicated by little hillocks, shaded to the east.
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Overall they give little impression of the 'bones' of the county, they are just a clutter of symbols. There is some variation in symbol size, and some groupings of the slightly larger symbols, for example around Wherwell, and perhaps for Portsdown. Perhaps separated out, viewed by themselves they may make more sense.

beacons    
Not many beacons are marked. To the north of Exton is a larger hillock on which there is a post with a cresset on a bracket:-
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Lomer Beacon
and the same at:-
Selbone Beacon

woods    
forests    

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The map is littered with tiny tree symbols, with a shadow to the east. These have no overall impression of being grouped into woods or forests, but some forests are labelled, eg:-
Buckholt Forest
New Forest
Pamber Forest

parks    
Parks are shown by a ring of fence palings on an outline; the outline shape and size is meant to be a little realistic. Some parks are labelled by the house marked within the pale, eg:-
Basing House
Some are named, eg:-
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Preeve Park
Tremanton Park
Others are not named. Some are drawn very indistinctly: look carefully, eg:-
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county    
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The county boundary is a bold dashed line. On the example studied this is tinted along with the hundred boundaries. Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
SURREY
Some places outside the county are drawn for the sake of continuity, Farnham for instance, one of the main roads.

hundreds    
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The hundreds boundaries are dotted lines, tinted. Hundreds are labelled within their areas, eg:-
BARTON STACEY HUND.
EAST MEAN HUNDRED
ALTON HUND:
Small detached parts are numbered, eg:-
image snip from map

1
10
refering to a table of parts of hundreds, in which:-
1. Part of Budlesgate Hundred
10. ... ... Sutton. ...

settlements    
streets    
market days    

Settlements are positioned by a circle, except where:-
The Market Towns & Villages on the Roads, are Ichnographically laid down.
ie they are shewn by groups of blocks arranged on a street plan. There are additional symbols, described in the table of symbols, for :-
The Parliamentary Boroughs have Stars annexed to them.
It is probably safe to assume that the number of stars represents the number of members sent to Parliament.
Vicarages have a cross and a 'V', rectories a cross and an 'R'; there are also letters '[Ch]', 'Cu' and 'A Donative' indicating their ?ecclesiastical status?
Market days are given:-
The Market Days are annexed to their respective Towns.
city     Groups of blocks on a street plan; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER
Market W & S
which has 2 stars, a crescent, a tilde: sends two members to Parliament, is a Post Stage, has a Religious House, markets on Wednesday and Saturday.

town     Group of blocks on a street plan; labelled in upright lowercase, eg:-
image snip from map

Andover
Market Sat.
There is a V for vicarage, a crescent for post stage, a tilde or perhaps shepherd's crook for a religious house, a cross for charity school. Or:-
Stockbridge
Markt. Thursd.
with two stars and a crescent: sends two members to Parliament, is a Post Stage, market on Thursday.
But the style is not consistent, Fareham, for example, is shown by the older style of a circle for position, buildings and towers.
image snip from map

Farham
The roads in a town are drawn to show the street plan of the settlement, eg:-
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at Lymington.

village     Circle, cross and letter(s); labelled in italic lowercase, eg:-
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Stoke Charity R
having a rectory.
A village on a road may have groups of blocks along the road, eg at Cheriton on the road from Petersfield to Winchester.

hamlet     Circle; labelled in smaller italic lowercase, eg:-
image snip from map

Sutton
Suberton

house     Gentlemens houses are shown by a circle with a small flag, eg:-
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Titchfield House


roads    
Roads are mostly shown by a double continuous line:-
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but:-
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The Direct and principal Cross Roads are Marked where Open or Heathy thus
with a double dotted line
Across the middle of some road segments, within a circle, are road distances.
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Distances between Market Towns thereon, are laid down in Measured Miles and Furlongs.
There is often an indication of where the road is going, eg:-
6.6 Whitchurch to Andover
At the bottom of the table of symbols is a handy reminder:-
NB A Furlong is the eighth part of a Mile.
Roads out of the county might be labelled with their destination:-
image snip from map

to Chichester
All the Ogilby routes across the county are included, with, by this later date, extra main roads such as: Winchester to Fareham, Cosham Havant, Chichester; Petersfield to Havant; Winchester to Stockbridge etc; Romsey to Fordingbridge and west; Lymington to Southampton, via Lyndhurst and via Bealieu and Hythe, but both via Redbridge.
Route diagram
button see:- KIT2RTE.txt


miscellaneous    



brickworks    
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schools    
The table of symbols gives a cross ?patte symbol for a charity school. There are examples at Alton and Andover.
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descriptive text    
The map has a number of panels of text. There are lists of:-
Earls and Dukes of Southampton
Seats of the Nobility
Livings in the Town of Southampton
Livings in the City of Winchester
and descriptions of towns, and some other features.


Transcripts of Text Panels

Earls & Dukes of Southampton.
1537. William Fitzwilliam, Lord Admiral.
1547. Thomas Wriothsley, Lord Chancellor, succeeded by Henry, and in 1581 by another Henry, and he by Thomas Wriothsley, Lord Treasurer, in 1624.
1670. Barbara Villiers, Wife of Roger Palmer Earl of Castlemain, was created Countess of Southampton. Charles Palmer, her illegitimate son by King Charles II. was created Duke in 1675.
1730. He dying was succeeded by his eldest survivd. Son William Duke of Cleveland and Southampton, who married Lady Harriot Finch, but he is now a Widower and without Issue.
Seats of Nobility &c.
Duke of Bolton, at Hawkwood and Basing.
Duke of Chandois, at Biddesden.
Earl of Anglesey, at Farnburgh.
Earl of Portsmouth, at Husbands.
Earl of Shaftesbury, at Rockburn.
Ld. Anson, at Soberton.
Ld. Delawar, at Boldrewood.
Ld. Mountjoy, at Moyles Court.
Ld. Talbot, at Redrice.
Barrington Bt. at Swainston.
Heathcot Bt. at Hursley.
Oglander Bt. at Nunwell.
Steward Bt. at Hartley.
Tichburn Bt. at Tichburn.
Wolsley Bt. at Chilton.
Mr. Delmy, at Quarley and Titchfield.
Mr. Henley, at Grange near Alresford.
Mr. Summner, at Longwood.
Mr. Whithed, at Southwick.
Livings in the Town of Southampton.
All Saints ... ... ... ... ... R
Jesus ... ... ... ... ... ... Ch
St. Johns ... ... ... ... ... R
St. Laurence . ... ... ... ... R
St. Michael .. ... ... ... ... V
Livings in the City of Winchester.
St. Bartholomew .. ... ... ...
St. John . ... ... ... ... ... R
St. Laurence . ... ... ... ... R
St. Maurice .. ... ... ... ... R
St. Michael .. ... ... ... ...
St. Peter Cheese-Hill ... ...
St. Swithin over KingsGate ...
St. Thomas ... ... ... ... ...
Trinity .. ... ... ... ... ...

Descriptive Texts

Andover gives Title of Vicount to the Earl of Berkshire.
Basing gives Title of Baron St. John to His Grace the Duke of Bolton, whose Seat here was built by his Ancestor John, Marquis of Winchester; out of the Ruins of Basing House, which was formerly a Garrison for King Charles the first, & was often besieg'd by the Parliament in vain: but taken by Storm by Oliver Cromwell, Octr. 14. 1645. and the Marquis with 400 others imprison'd. The Marquis from its gallant Defence call'd the House Love Loyalty, which he caus'd to be written on every Window of it; & those words in French Aimez Loyaute, have been ever since the Motto of the family.
Gosport is a Town of great Trade, having communication with Portsmouth by Boats, passing from one to the other.
Hampshire affords plenty of Corn, Cattle, Wool, Wood, and Iron, but is particularly esteem'd for its excellent Honey and Bacon. Its Manufactures are Kersies & Stuffs; The Air is temperate, and the Soil fertile in all sorts of Grain. As its Coasts furnish Oysters, Lobsters, and other Salt -water Fish, so its Rivers abound in fresh Fish, especially Trouts. Here are many convenient Harbours which bring a great Foreign trade to it. And indeed, there is not a more inviting County in Great Britain, as well for Profit as Pleasure.
Hurst Castle was built by King Henry VIII. for the Defence of New Forest. King Chs. I. was imprison'd here three weeks. This with Calshot, St. Andrews, and Netley Castles, are a perfect Security to the Bay of Southampton.
Kingsclear is noted for having been the Seat of the Saxon Kings.
Lymington gives Title of Vicount to Jno. Wallop, so created by his late Majesty King George I.
New Forest was so call'd by William the Conqueror, who destroy'd all that part of the Country for thirty Miles round, which contain'd many Towns, Villages, & Churches; two of his Sons viz. Richard, & Willm. Rufus both lost their Lives in this Forest. In the last Century it was well stock'd with all sorts of Deer, & the Stags were very large.
Odiam was formerly of Note for its Royal Palace and strong Castle, which in K. John's time was defended against Lewis the Dauphin, & the Barons Army, for 15 Ds. by 13 Men only. In the Reign of Edwd. III. David K. of Scots was kept prisoner here: It was the Birth place of that famous Grammarian, Mr. Willm. Lilly Master of St. Paul's School.
Portsmouth is a famous Port strongle fortified; The Harbour is so large & good that all the Men of War in Europe may safely ride there together: 'Tis a Place of good Trade, very populace, & a Nursery for Seamen. Louisa de Queronaille was created by Chas. II. in 1673, Baroness of Petersfield, Countess of Farham, & Dutchess of Portsmouth, all in this Shire. Wallop Vict. Lymington was created El. of Portsmouth 1744.
Ringwood a large thriving Town, stands in a Valley well water'd by the Streams of the River Avon. The Manufactures of this Town are Druggets, narrow Cloths, Stockings, and Leather, and its Market is well supplied with Corn, and Cattle. Near this place, the Duke of Monmouth was taken by one Perkin, as he lay hid in a Ditch cover'd with Fern in July 1685, just after his Defeat at the Battle of Sedgmoor.
Rumsey gave Birth to that great mathematician Sr. Wm. Petty, from whom the Barons of Shelburn of Ireland are descended.
Silchester is the Ruins of the antient City of Vindomia or Vindonum, said to have been built by Constantius, Son of Constantine the Great.
Southampton the County Town, is accomodated with a large Harbour and Quay, & carries on a good Trade to Newfoundland, Portugal, and Jersey; 'twas here that King Canute ridicul'd his flattering Courtiers by commanding (tho' in vain) the Tide not to approach his Feet. It is a very old Town, and consists of one large long Street, and is wall'd with the Honey-comb Rock Stone the most durable of any, & it had a good Castle, built by King Richard II all of fine free Stone, for the Defence of the Town & Harbour, but it is now demolish'd. Here are 5 Parish-Churches, & an Hospital call'd God's House.
At Southwick King Henry VI. was married to the Duke of Anjou's Daughter. It has ever since the Reign of Queen Eliz. been the Seat of the Nortons, some of whom have been Sheriffs, and others Representatives in Parliament for this County. The last of them Col. Richd. Norton dying in Decr. 1732, made an extraordinary Will, by which he left his real Estate of 6000l. a Year and a personal one computed at 60000l. to the poor, hungry, and thirsty, naked, and strangers, sick, and wounded, and prisoners, to the end of the World: appointing the Parliament his Executors, and in case of their refusal the Bishops, leaving all his Pictures an other moveables to the King: Trustees were soon appointed to inspect the Premises, but the Will carried in it such evdient marks of Insanity, that it was soon after laid aside.
Spithead and St. Helens is the general Renezvous of the Royal Navy.
Upper, Middle, & Nether Wallop, give Name and Title of Baron, to the Antient and Honourable Family of the Lord Vicount Lymington; one of whom viz. Sir John Wallop in 1513 fitted out some Ships, & with 800 Men burn'd 21 Towns in Normandy, and all the French Ships in the Ports of Naples, Tripoli, &c. in revenge for Piracies committed in the British Seas, by one of the Knts. of Malta.
Weyhill tho a poor Village, with a desolate Church & hardly a House about it, yet is of Note for one of the greatest Fairs in England, for Hops Cheese &c. & for Sheep there is not so great one, especially Dorsetshire Ewes for store Sheep.
Winchester is a City of great Antiquity, and the richest Bishoprick in England. Its Cathedral was built by William of Wickham Prelate of this See, who found a noble College here to fit out Youth for New College in Oxford, which he also founded; He likewise built several Free-Schools, Hospitals, &c. here. This is the Assize-Town. Willm. Pawlett El. of Wiltshire & Lord High Treasurer of England, was made Marquis of Winchester by Edward VI. & was since made Duke of Bolton by King William the third: and the Title of Marguis (sic) is stil in the possession of the Duke of Bolton's eldest Son.

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HantsMap Notes -- KITCHIN2.txt
MN: 2.3.2000
last edit: 12.7.2002