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NOTES from LEA'S MAP of ENGLAND AND WALES, 1687

Maps[star]1175(142)  
These notes, relevant to Hampshire, are made from the map of England and Wales with roads, by Phillip Lea, Cheapside, London, engraved by Sutton Nichols, published London, 1687. The item studied is in the Map Room, British Library, item BL:Maps[star]1175(142)
map type: HantsMap & Lea 1687
The map size is: wxh, sheet = 50x51cm; wxh, map = 479x506mm. The map is mounted as two pieces with a gap so that it can be folded for storage in the map library. Remember that these notes are strongly biased towards Hampshire interest.

MAP FEATURES

title cartouche    
wreath cartouche    
map maker    
engraver    
coat of arms    

Printed lower left is a wreath cartouche surrounded by spears, flags, drums, dolphins, sceptre, sword, and a crown with the royal coat of arms of the Stuarts. The title is:-
A NEW MAP OF ENGLAND And WALES With the Direct and Cross Roads Also the number of Miles between the Townes on the Roads by inspection in figures. Sold by Phillip Lea Globemaker at the Atlas and Hercules in Cheapside near Fryday Stre[et].

engraver    
Printed lower centre is:-
Sutton Nichols Sculpt it

table of symbols    
Printed upper right is a plain cartouche:-
For the Use of This Mapp Note
The First is the most Northerly
The Second is the next Southward
The 3d. &c.
So that the Bottom of ye First Answears to the Top of the second &c.
This is an Epittome of a larger mapp which hath 3000 Names more than Aney.
The sequence first, second ... refers to the way the map was printed, in four strips which were intended to be sold folded as a booklet. An advertisement for the map in the London Gazette, October 1688:-
... so contrived to carry in the pocket, without the inconveniency of folding, and not knowing where one part joins to another.

orientation    
compass rose    
up is N    

The map has several compass roses; star points for cardinal and half cardinal and false points, lines for bye points, North marked by a fleur de lys, East by three balls. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale lines    
scale    

Printed lower right are three scale lines, labelled:-
MILES
Magna
Mediocra
Parva
each chequered in miles for 10 miles, then graduated at 5 miles intervals, labelled at 10 mile intervals.
The large miles have 30 miles = 50.6 mm giving a scale 1 to 1577788, a map scale about:-
1 to 1600000
25 miles to 1 inch
The middle miles have 35 miles = 52.1 mm giving a scale 1 to 1081133, a map scale about:-
1 to 1100000
17 miles to 1 inch
The small miles have 40 miles = 55.2 mm giving a scale 1 to 1166191, a map scale about:-
1200000
18 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
The map borders are printed with scales of latitude and longitude for a trapezoid projection. The prime meridian is drawn through London, perhaps 1 minute West of the city. The
longitude, Winchester = 1d 17m W
These readings suggest that the plotting of Winchester is not that accurate; the table of data puts Winchester at 1d 18m W.
Some rough measurements were made from the scales. 6d longitude at 50d 10m N = 319.2 mm; 6d longitude at 55d 58m N = 277.9 mm; 2d latitude = 164.1 mm. These give, approximately:-
1d longitude at 50d N = 53.4 mm
1d longitude at 51d N = 52.2 mm
1d latitude = 82.1 mm
The shape of the projection is:-
ratio longitudes at 51d and 50d = 1.02
ratio latitude/longitude at 51d N = 1.55
The expected values for this latitude, Hampshire, for a 'square' map are 1.02 and 1.58 respectively.
The map includes from 2d 15m E to 6d 35m W, 50d 20m to 55d 55m N; England and Wales plus parts of Scotland, Ireland and an edge of France.

sea area    
sea plain    
ships    

The sea is plain, the sea area in the south labelled:-
OCEANUS BRITANNICUS Versus GALLIAM
There are some 3 masted ships, men of war, in the sea, for decoration.

coast line    
coast shaded    

The coast line is emphasized by shading. Harbours in Hampshire are bareley recognisable.

rivers    
Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines. A few large rivers are labelled in their estuaries, eg:-
Test R
labelling Southampton Water.

relief    
hillocks    

A few hillocks indicate hills, but they do not appear to be a serious attempt to depict relief.

woods    
forests    
trees    

A few tree symbols suggest woods, but, as with hillocks, these do not convince the reader of serious intent. In Hampshire there are sprinklings of trees in the New Forest and at Pamber Forest.

county    
The county boundaries are dotted lines, tinted differently along each county's side; Hampshire yellow, Dorset pink, Wiltshire orange, Berkshire green, Surrey orange, Sussex pink (colours have probably faded from their original hue). The county are is labelled, eg:-
HA SH.

settlements    
table of data    

Settlements are marked by a circle differentiated by additional marks and style of labelling. Examples in Hampshire.
city     circle, buildings, towers, perhaps a wall; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
WINCHESTER

town     circle, building, tower; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
Andover
Alton

except that Southampton has upright block caps. The counties and main towns are listed in a table printed upper right in a drape cartouche:-
By This Table May Be Found Any City or Shire Town
The Plate / Counties or Shires / Cittys or Towns / Latitude Longitude / MT / Com Dis / Mea Dis M F
...
4 / Hamshire / Winchester [mitre] / / 51:03 / 01:18 / 0 5 2 / 67:3
...

roads    
road distances    

Roads are drawn by double or single line, indicating main and smaller roads. Distances are given by figures between town and town.


Hampshire Places

Hampshire has, from the 'usual' list of 21 towns:-
Alton
Andover
Basingstoke
Waltham
Christchurch
Fareham
Fordingbridg
-
Havant
Kingsclere
Lemington
Alresford
Odiham
Petersfield
Portsmouth
Ringwood
Rumsey
Southampton
Stock B.
Whitchurch
Winchester

Hampshire Roads

The main routes in Hampshire are:-
 
from London; through Hounslow, Middlesex; 25 miles to Basingstoke, 11 to Whitchurch, 6 to Andover, Hamshire; and 10 to Salisbury, Wiltshire; then west to Lands End.
 
from London; through Godalming, Surrey; 17 miles to Petersfield, and 15 to Portsmouth, Hampshire.
 
branch from Petersfield, 10 miles to Alton, 8 to Alresford, 7 to Winchester, Hampshire.

REFERENCES

Shirley, Rodney W: 1988: Printed Maps of the British Isles 1650-1750: Map Collector Publications & British Library:: ISBN 0 7123 0142 9


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HantsMap Notes -- LEA2.txt
MN: 28.7.2002
last edit: 28.7.2002