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Letts 1884
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NOTES from LETTS'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1884

FA2001.139  
These notes are taken from the map of Hampshire published by Letts, Son and Co, London Bridge, London, about 1884. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums service, item HMCMS:FA2001.139.
map type: HantsMap & Letts 1884
The map is colour printed. The map size is: wxh, sheet = 35.5x42.5cm; wxh, map = 326x404mm.

MAP FEATURES

title cartouche    
map maker    

image snip from map

Printed in a plain title cartouche upper left is:-
HAMPSHIRE AND ISLE OF WIGHT
below which:-
LETTS, SON & Co LIMITED.
Printed at the bottom:-
LETTS, SON & Co LIMITED LONDON BRIDGE E C

orientation    
compass rose    
up is N    

image snip from map

Printed upper right is a compass rose; no circle, star points for cardinal and half cardinal directions, lines for false points, North marked by a fleur de lys. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line    
scale    

Printed upper left is a scale of:-
image snip from map

English Miles
chequered and labelled in miles, with a left extension divided in furlongs. The 12+1 miles = 77.6 mm giving a scale 1 to 269607 assuming a statute mile. the map scale is about:-
1 to 270000
4 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
image snip from map

Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a trapezoid projection; chequered in minutes, labelled at 10 minute intervals. The bottom longitude scale is labelled:-
Longitude West of Greenwich
As well as can be read the:-
longitude, Winchester = 1d 18.2m W
which agrees with the accepted figure 1d 18.4m W.
The international agreement of Greenwich as the prime meridian was made at a conference in the United States 1884, the year this map was published. It was already well established as a prime meridian in use by many nations as well as Britain.
The map includes from 0d 23m to 1d 53m W, from 50d 31m to 51d 26m N; the whole of Hampshire and parts of Dorset which were Hampshire, and the Isle of Wight.

index grid    
Printed across the map is a grid, this is not a graticule of latitude and longitude. The grid is rectangular and divides the map into 20 cells, 4 across 5 down. The cells are labelled in the borders; A..D, a..e, making this a simple index grid for referring to positions on the map. The cells are large; given a reference there is still a lot of searching to do to find a place on this crowded map.

table of symbols    
printed lower right is an extensive table of symbols:-
image snip from map

EXPLANATION OF SIGNS.
railways ... [triple line, tinted red] Main Roads ... [double line, tinted yellow]
Dangerous Hills (dot indicating where danger lies [red dot and bar]
Canals ... [triple line, light bold light] Life Boat Stations ... L.B.S.
Coast Guard Stations ... C.G.S.
Towns with Population above 20,000 ... [blank space]
Towns with Population above 50,000 ... [blue line]
Towns with Population above 100,000 ... [red line]
Cathedral Cities ... [red maltese cross] Post Towns ... [four blue dots]
Towns where Quarter Sessions are held ... [red square]
Towns where County Courts are held ... [red sword]
days of Week by Towns denote Market Days.
Figures under Towns denote Distances in Miles from London
Figures along roads denote Distances in Miles from Town to Town.
Boundaries of Parliamentary Boroughs shown by colour, and number of Members returnable by dots, thus ... [red dot]
County Parliamentary Divisions by colour, and number of Members returnable by Rings un name of Division, thus ... [red circle]
Names of parishes, thus ... Brook [upright lowercase text]

table of data    
population    

The map has several tables/lists of information about the county, including, upper left:-
STATISTICS.
Population ... 593,487
Area in Acres ... 1,032,105
Gross Rental ... L3,278,906
Inhabited Houses ... 110,531
Poor Rate ... L31,705
Paupers ... 21,416

sea area    
sea tinted    

The sea area is printed blue with an array of dots; some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
THE SOLENT
SOUTHAMPTON WATER
Stoke Bay

coast line    
coast shaded    
headlands    
harbours    
lighthouses    
coastguards    
lifeboats    

image snip from map

The coast line is shaded.
Some headlands are noticed, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
Gilkicker Pt.
and some harbours are labelled, eg:-
Key Haven
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
At Southampton there are labelled:-
Docks / Pier
On the end of Hurst Spit is labelled;-
Light
for the ?two lighthouses there.
At intervals along the coast are letters:-
image snip from map

C.G.S.
which stand for Coast Guard Station. there are quite a lot, for example at the west end of Hurst Spit, Lymington, Sowley, mouth of the Beaulieu River, Lepe, and places west and east of this group.
The letters:-
L.B.S.
stand for Life Boat Station, for example at the south west tip of Hayling Island. The letters are quite hard to see as they are drowned in the sea tint and coast shading.

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

Some of the old and new coastal defences are noticed on the map:-
image snip from map

Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
Ft. Monkton
[fortifications at Gosport]
[fortifications at naval dockyard]
image snip from map

[fortifications at Portsmouth]
South Sea Castle
Cumberland Fort
What is not shown is interesting.

rivers    
bridges    
ponds    

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Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering inland. Braiding might be shown, for example north and south of Ringwood on the Avon. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Avon River [Salisbury Avon]
Anton or Test River
Enborne
Itching River
Avon Water
R. Stour
All the main rives of the county and many tributaries are shown. Following rivers is difficult in this densely drawn map.
Some bridges are noticed, eg:-
Knights Bri.
on the Enborne.
Some ponds are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Woolmer Pond
Tanners Pond [N of Kings Sombourn]

relief    
hill hachuring    

Relief is shown by hill hachuring. Some hills are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Quarley Hill
Longstock Hill
Some downs are labelled, eg:-
Broad Halfpenny Down
Corhampton Down

beacons    
beacons are an irrelevance to the period of this map. But references remain in placenames, eg:-
image snip from map

Beacon Lodge [W of Hordle]
Popham beacon
Beacon Hill [N of Exton]

woods    
forests    
trees    

woodland is indicated by groups of tree and bush symbols, perhaps labelled, eg;
NEW FOREST
image snip from map

Forest of Bere [East Bere Forest]
image snip from map

High Wood
Faccombe Wood
Wherwell Wood
Not all forests are densely covered with trees, and undergrowth is suggested by dotting.
Notice the:-
Swanwick Elm
a placename or a tree name?

parks    
parks are drawn in outline, the interior pecked, perhaps having a few trees, perhaps labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Burley Park
Hackwood Park
perhaps labelled by the house name, eg:-
The Vine

county    
image snip from map

The county boundary is a dot dash line. Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
WILTSHIRE
Roads, railways, and significant settlements are drawn outside the county boundary to put Hampshire in its context. The transport features continue to the edge of the map border and occasionally beyond, for example Reading is included though it is outside the map border.

hundreds    
electoral data    
table of hundreds    

image snip from map

The boundary between thirteen parliamentary divisions is a dot dot dot dash line. The two main divisions are labelled:-
NORTHERN DIVISION
SOUTHERN DIVISION
coloured pale green and yellow respectively. A red circle under the name of the division indicates the number of members returned to Parliament. The divisions are divided into hundreds, by a dotted line; note that parts of a hundred might be in different divisions. The hundred areas are labelled by a number referring to a table printed lower left:-
The LARGE FIGURES in body of Map refer to the DIVISIONS, HUNDREDS, and LIBERTIES, thus;-
ODIHAM DIVISION.
Crondal ... 1
Odiham (part of) ... 2
Holdshot do. ... 3
Bermondspit do. ... 4
Bentley ... 5
BASINGSTOKE DIVISION.
Holdshot ... 6
Barton Stacey ... 7
Overton ... 8
Chuteley ... 9
Basingstoke ... 10
Bermondspit ... 11
Odiham ... 12
KINGSCLERE DIVISION.
Evinger ... 13
Chuteley ... 14
Kingsclere ... 15
Basingstoke ... 16
Overton ... 17
Pastrow ... 18
ANDOVER DIVISION.
Andover Hund. ... 19
Pastrow ... 20
Thorngate ... 21
Kings Sombourn ... 22
Buddlesgate ... 23
Wherwell ... 24
Barton Stacey ... 25
ROMSEY DIVISION.
Thorngate ... 26
Kings Sombourn ... 27
Buddlesgate ... 28
Mansbridge ... 29
Redbridge ... 30
New Forest ... 31
WINCHESTER DIVISION.
Buddlesgate ... 32
Barton Stacey ... 33
Micheldever ... 34
Mainsboro' ... 35
Bountisboro' ... 36
Fawley ... 37
Bishops Waltham ... 38
ALTON DIVISION.
Fawley ... 39
Bishops Sutton ... 40
Shaldon ... 41
Alton ... 42
Selbourn ... 43
PETERSFIELD DIVISION.
Barton Stacey ... 44
Fawley ... 45
East Meon ... 46
Alton ... 47
Odiham ... 48
Finch Dean ... 49
FAREHAM DIVISION.
Portsdown ... 50
Bosmere ... 51
Havant Lib. ... 52
Fareham Hd. ... 53
Gosport & Alverstoke ... 54
Titchfield ... 55
DROXFORD DIVISION.
Bishops Sutton ... 56
Fawley ... 57
Meon Stoke ... 58
Hambledon ... 59
Bishops Waltham ... 60
SOUTHAMPTON DIVISION.
Mansbridge ... 61
Bishops Waltham ... 62
Baddlesgate [sic] ... 63
Dibden ... 64
Beaulieu .. 65
LYMINGTON DIVISION.
Christchurch ... 66
Ringwood ... 67
New Forest ... 68
RINGWOOD DIVISION.
Christchurch ... 69
Westover ... 70
Ringwood ... 71
Fordingbridge ... 72
New Forest ... 73
Breamore ... 74
ISLE OF WIGHT.
West medina ... 75
East do. ... 76
Boroughs, towns sending members to parliament, are bounded by dotted line and tinted pink (I think).

settlements    
distances from London    
post roads    
market days    
courts    
electoral data    

Settlements are marked by blocks or groups of blocks, differentiated by style of lettering, and a number of added elements.
city     group of blocks at the confluence of roads; labelled in upright block caps:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER / 63
Winchester has a red maltese cross for a cathedral city; is underlined by four blue dots to show it is a post town; has a red sword as a place where county courts are held; has a red square for a place where quarter sessions are held; has two red dots indicating it is a parliamentary borough returning two members to Parliament; and has blue letters for market days:-
W & S
Wednesday and Saturday.
The figure is the distance from London. The various added elements are not always easy to read, getting lost in the detail on the map.

town     group of blocks; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

Alton / 47
with four blue dots for a post town; red sword for county courts; and letter:-
Tu
for Tuesday market day.
SOUTHAMPTON / 74
has four blue dots, two red dots, a red sword, letter F? for Friday market day; and is underlined in blue to show it has a population over 50,000.
PORTSMOUTH / 70
has four blue dots, red sword, two red dots, market days:-
Tu Th & S
and is underlined in red for a population above 100,000.

village     block or group of blocks and a cross (+) for the church; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Upper Wallop

hamlet     block or two; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
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Middle Wallop
Italic lowercase is used to label all sorts of features on the map.


roads    
road distances    
turnpike roads    

image snip from map

Roads are drawn by a double line, solid or dotted for fenced and unfenced edges. The roads are broad or narrow, some have a light and bold line, some are tinted yellow. It is not really clear how the various conventions add up. The yellow tint is declared for 'main roads' but can include a narrow as well as the includes broad roads:-
image snip from map

Dangerous hills are marked by a red dot and bar:-
image snip from map

The figures beside roads are distances, marked each two miles from a town towards another.
Some road junctions are labelled, eg;-
Lobcombe Corner
and less usefully:-
A Cross Rds.
on Cranbury Common.
By some roads there are labels like:-
Vernham Dean Gate
Botley Gate
which may refer to turnpike gates?

railways    
image snip from map

According to the table of symbols, railways are drawn by a triple line, tinted red. In practice the railways are drawn by a pair of double line, the rails, with cross lines for the sleepers. In places the cross lines have been forgotten; in other places the triple line is used. The red tint is printed out of registration.
Stations are marked by a dot, and labelled, eg:-
Station
Statn.
Sta.
A railway might be labelled, eg:-
London & South Western Ry.

canals    
Canals are drawn by a triple line, light bold light. the following canals can be recognised:-
Titchfield Canal     from Titchfield to the coast of Southampton Water west of Hillhead.

Itchen Navigation     from Winchester to the head of the Itchen estuary south of South Stoneham.

Basingstoke Canal     from Basingstoke to the county boundary on the east. The tunnel is labelled, but not drawn differently. Some bridges can been seen.
image snip from map

Basingstoke Canal

Andover Canal     from Andover to Redbridge, alongside the railway, occasionally obscured by it.
Andover Canal

Salisbury and Southampton Canal     from just short of the county boundary on the west to join the Andover Canal south of Mottisfont. Not shown into Southampton.
Old Canal

Portsmouth and Arundel Canal     from the east edge of Portsea Island into the edge of Portsmouth.
Canal


miscellaneous    



inns    
A number of inns are noticed, for example:-
image snip from map

Dog & Crook [Timsbury by Romsey]
West Meon Hut
Anchor Inn [Ropley]

antiquities    
tumuli    

With no symbol there is a label:-
Kent Barrow
south of Andover. The nearby hillforts of Danebury and Quarley are not noticed.

antiquities    
roman roads    

A stretch of road north of Farleigh Chamberlayne is labelled:-
Roman Road
on the line between Winchester and Salisbury. South of Kingsclere another piece of road is labelled the same, on the route from Silchester to Sarum.

salterns    
In the coastal area south west of Lymington is;-
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Salt Works

race courses    
There is at least one race course marked:-
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Race Cou.
on Worthy Down north of Winchester.


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MN: 5.2.2004
last edit: 10.2.2004