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Map Notes -- 
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the HMCMS Map Collection   Map Notes

OS 1810s Old Series
to 1st map described 


These notes are about the Old Series, or 1st edition, 1 inch maps, sheets 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16, for Hampshire, published by the Ordnance Survey, Tower of London, London, 1810s. The examples of these maps in the HMCMS Map Collection are items HMCMS:FA2003.1.8 to .16 and HMCMS:FA1998.91, index sheet HMCMS:FA2003.8.
map type: HantsMap & OS 1810s Old Series
The introduction to these maps by Harley and O'Donoghue in the Margary publication is immensely helpful and far more expert than these notes. But the notes here are about Hampshire, and are written to the pattern used for other, earlier, printed maps of the county. This is not an unthought strategy; while it may not be most apt for mapping done in a new and scientific manner, the pattern does enable comparison with earlier maps.
Also see:-


Notes and illustrative snips are taken from Hampshire parts of any sheet in the Map Collection. Areas outside the county are mostly ignored.
piano key border    
The maps have a border known as a paino key border.

map maker    

The maps do not have a title on the sheet, though there is a name attached to the sheet in the list in the index map for the series. Sheet 11 is named:-
The sheet number is printed top right in roman numerals, eg:-
No. XI
and on later editions is repeated in arabic numerals, above and to the right, eg:-
Printed top left:-
Engraved at the Drawing Room in the Tower under the Direction of Lt. Coll. Mudge, by Benjn. Baker & Assistants - The Writing by Ebenr. Bourne. / Price Two Shillings
Printed bottom:-
Published 10th. April 1810, by Lt. Coll. Mudge, Tower. / Printed from an Electrotype

up is N    

Although the maps are printed with North at the top of the sheet, this 'up' is at a small angle to 'up' of the modern Ordnance Survey sheets.

lat and long grid    

The Old Series maps use a projection based on a local meridian.
Printed in the top and bottom borders of sheet 11 is a line marking the local meridian, labelled:-
image snip from map

Meridian of Dunnose Latitude 50[d]. 37[m]. 8[s]. / Longitude 1[d]. 11[m]. 36[s]. West
The Meridian of Dunnose runs from Dunnose, Isle of Wight to Clifton, Yorkshire. It passes through Hampshire and used triangulation stations at Butser Hill and Highclere. Other nearby stations that made triangles with these were: Dean Hill, Wiltshire; Hindhead and Bagshot, Surrey; Whitehorse Hill, Berkshire; Nuffield, Oxfordshire. The triangulation is described by Mudge and Colby 1811.
Printed in the right border:-
Parallel to the Meridian at Greenwich
The maps have no scales of latitude and longitude by which to know where a place is, though accurate knowledge of this information is implicit in the plotting.

scale line    

Printed in the bottom border is a:-
image snip from map

Scale of Statute Miles
marked and labelled in miles, with a left extension marked and labelled in furlongs. The 5+1 miles = 149.1 mm gives a scale 1 to 64676. The nominal map scale is:-
1 to 63360
1 inch to 1 mile

table of symbols    
The topographical conventions used for the maps were printed separately and are illustrated by Harley and O'Donoghue.

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea area is plain, with some areas labelled, eg:-
buoys are not marked generally, but a conical buoy is drawn in Spithead, labelled:-
image snip from map

Buoy of the Royal George
which ship sank in 1782 and was still obstructing shipping in The Solent to the mid 19th century.

coast line    
coast form lines    
coast appearance    

image snip from map

The coast line is emphasized by elegant form lines. The engraving is in two stages: from the coast line out across the foreshore, reducing to nothing; from the edge of the foreshore out into the sea, reducing again. The engraving is eye catching, particularly around the channels in Portsmouth Harbour and the East and West Winner at the entrance to Langstone Harbour, sheet 11.
Channels in the foreshore are clearly marked, and occasionally labelled, eg:-
Ashlet Lake
Oar Creek
Rocks might be marked on the foreshore.
Where there are cliffs the coast line is drawn to show their appearance from the sea, for example west of Hengistbury Head and the coast off Milton.
Headlands are noticed eg:-
Needs Oar Point
Stone Point
Gilkicker Point
The shallows and channels and islands are drawn in the harbours, some of which are labelled, eg:-
Langston Harbour
In Portsmouth Harbour there are labelled:-
Pewitt Island
Horsea Island
Whale Id.
Porchester Lake
Fountain Lake
Fareham Lake
as well as the coastal features. Notice the use of 'lake' for channel. The term has two meanings, from two separate roots; here it means channel from its teutonic root.
On Hurst Spit there is labelled:-
Light House

coastal defence    

Many of the old coastal defence castles and more recent fortifications are shown, together with related works. The fortifications clearly drawn as artillery style polygonal defences. See:-
Hurst Castle
image snip from map

Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
[fortification, Fort Gilkicker]
Barracks [at Haslar]
Haslar Hospital
[fortification, Fort Blockhouse]
[fortification, around Gosport]
Burrow Fort
Priddys Hard [and fortification]
[fortification, along Ports Creek]
[fortification on mainland at Ports Bridge]
Hilsea Redoubt
Hilsea Barracks
Magazine [Tipner Point]
[fortification, round Royal Navy dockyard]
[fortification, round Portsmouth]
S. Sea Castle
[fortification, Lumps Fort]
image snip from map

Cumberland Fort
On a later edition of the 1 inch maps, government maps, the coastal defences are partly erased. The fortifications around Gosport and the dockyard and town at Portsmouth, are, for example, blanked out. Haslar Hospital and Priddy's Hard are gone, and so on.


image snip from map

Rivers are drawn with a double line sometimes with form lines, perhaps suggesting their true width? with the west bank engraved bolder, a shadow to the east or south east. Where narrower the river is drawn by a single wiggly line tapering upstream. Large and moderate size meanders should be plotted accurately at this scale; but remember that rivers are dynamic systems, and meanders do just that. Braiding is shown. Many rivers are labelled, eg:-
The Anton or Test R.
Beaulieu River
Town Brook [Basingstoke]
and some river mouths are labelled, eg:-
Bourne Mouth
which is pretty near uninhabited at this date.
Above Stockbridge the Test/Anton is labelled Test; the river through Andover is labelled Anton; the stream through St Mary Bourne is labelled Test. This is not an unusual muddle.
A river flood plain might be engraved, perhaps by a roulette? to suggest tussocky meadows. Below Bossington a flood plain engraved like this is labelled:-
image snip from map

Water Mead
The map shows the complicated streams and artificial channels of the water meadows south of Downton, on the Avon.
Some springs are noticed, eg:-
Springs [S of East Meon]
Newram Springs [ESE of Basingstoke]
Some ponds are drawn in outline and labelled, eg:-
Sowley Pond
Creech Pond
An unlabelled pond might be unrecognised, it's just another shape. A pond in the flood plain of the Itchen, level with North Stoneham is labelled:-
where there was a duck decoy for hunters.
image snip from map

Flash Pond
on Beaulieu Heath uses a local word for a marsh or pond. On the stream 2 miles ENE of Southwick Park is a:-
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. Some are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Boldre Bridge [Lymington River]
Skidmore Bridge [Test]
A ferry might be noticed, eg:-
image snip from map

Itchen Ferry

hill hachuring    

image snip from map

Relief is indicated by hill hachuring, which, disentangled from other features, is moderately successful at giving a local impression of landscape; it does not show the shape of the country as a whole. The relationship of rivers to valleys, and roads to ridges, is often very clear. Some hills are labelled, eg:-
Butser Hill
Bere Down
Toot Hill
As well as hills some valleys are labelled, eg:-
Hollywell Bottom [W of Kingsclere]

Beacons are not marked by any symbol, but some of the old beacon sites are suggested by hill names, eg:-
Beacon Hill [Burghclere]
Beacon Hill [N of Exton]
Beacon Hill [NW of Dibden]
and at least one is named:-
image snip from map

Bushy Beacon [ESE of Sarisbury Green]


Woodland is indicated by large and small tree and bush symbols, in enclosed and unenclosed groups. Many groups of trees are accompanied by dotting for rough or uncultivated ground. The density of ground cover and bushes and trees is varied to give an impression of real landscape. Many woods are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Out Hurst Wood
In Hurst Wood
Holt Wood
Bells Coppice
all in the East Bere Forest area. Nearly all woods are shown with deciduous tree symbols. There are some fir trees noticed, eg:-
Fir Trees
by an indeterminate symbol east of Catherington.
In a park the tree symbols might be drawn in avenues.
There is an unnamed plantation of fir trees, in rows, on The Barnet south of Colemore.
A few individual trees are labelled, not always attached to a particular tree symbol, eg:-
image snip from map

Wollaston's Willow [E of Bossington]
Marlpit Oak [S of Brockenhurst]
Bound Oak [W of Rowlands Castle]
Bound Tree [S of Dibden]
Yew Tree [E of Dibden]
which last may just be descriptive, not a name, but it does have its own distinctive tree symbol, a fir.
A variety of land areas are labelled indicating their nature, eg:-
Blendworth Comn.
Creech Plain
West Heath [W of Pamber]
Hartford Bridge Flats
Wallop Fields
Peat Moor

image snip from map

At this scale parks are shown in some detail, for example:-
Bramshill Park     Outline with fence palings, trees and avenues, ponds, house, roads, etc.

Hackwood Park     Parkland, formal rides, house, lodge, roads, etc.

Hurstbourne House     Hills, lakes, house, trees and avenues, statue, keepers lodge, etc.

image snip from map

The county boundary is a bold dotted line; the line might be engraved less bold where it would spoil other engraving, eg the edge of Lady Holt Park east of Charlton on the Sussex border. Remember that these maps are not 'county' maps but parts of an overall survey of the country. Topographic detail is plotted allover the sheets, not stopping at, taking little notice of, county boundaries. The county is named, labelled on sheets 12 and 11:-
image snip from map

in large block caps which are engraved to overlie hachures and land boundaries, but underlie settlements and roads; a pretty conceit.
The detached part of the county in Sussex is bounded, and labelled:-


Settlements are marked by groups of blocks on roads or streets; or by shaded and shadowed areas representing built up areas, on a street plan; a cross marks a church. Places are differentiated by size of group and by size and style of labelling.
city     shaded and shadowed areas on a street plan, perhaps some blocks, perhaps a cross for a church; labelled in upright block caps:-
image snip from map

Among the clutter is it is possible to pick out the cathedral, drawn in solid outline, and river streams.

The style of lettering is used for large towns:-
town     Shaded and shadowed areas on streets and/or groups of blocks, a cross for a church; labelled in italic block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

The leading capital being a little larger. Notice that Fordingbridge is downgraded to a village.

village     group of blocks on roads and streets, a cross for a church; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Hinton Ampner
East Worldham

hamlet     smaller scatter of blocks on roads; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map


The last style of text is used generally, in smaller and smaller sizes depending on how busy the map is, for labelling all sorts of features. All labels have a leading capital letter, which is correct for proper nouns in English, not for nouns and descriptive terms generally. This makes it difficult to know whether a label is a nominative or descriptive. Some terms are fairly obviously descriptive:-
Summer Ho. / Brick Kiln / Monument / Public Ho. / School / Post Office / Tumuli / Well / Factory
But some are not so clear:-
Cabbage Garden / Beech Coppice / Seven Barrows / Fir Clumps
farms     Numerous farms are marked and labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Stoke Dairy F.
Sherfield F.
These can be regarded as the smallest sort of settlement, discounting a great house.

turnpike roads    
road distances    
road signs    

image snip from map

A detailed network of roads is shown over the whole map. Roads are drawn by double lines, solid or dotted for fenced or unfenced. A line at right angles to the road at the end of a dotted edge, indicates a field boundary delimiting unenclosed land. Roads are drawn with slightly different widths; broader roads with one line bolder are turnpike roads, narrower roads are minor roads. Tracks are drawn by a single dotted line.
How much smoothing of the routes is made has not been investigated, but it is clear that these roads are plotted to show how they lie; bends and junction realistically laid out within the limitations of the scale.
A few roads have names, eg:-
Hog Lane [NW of Kingsclere]
Cock Lane [W of Winchester]
as are some junctions, eg:-
image snip from map

Pimple Corner [WNW of Bossington]
Lobcombe Corner
Five Lanes [W of St Mary Bourne]
Hampshire Cross [N of South Tidworth]
Three Legged Cross [5 ways, E of Ashmansworth]
Some signposts are indicated, eg:-
image snip from map

Direction Post [fork S of Twyford]
with a drawing of a finger post.
Some turnpike gates are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

T.P. Gate
Worting T.P. Gate
Kempshot T. Pike
T. Pike
Port-lane T. Pike
Gates are not marked across the road. Notice that a term like:-
Whichers Gate
not on a turnpike, probably refers to an old park gate, or something!
Later editions of the map have spot heights along some roads, for example:-
.284 .372 .466 .446
on the road from Basingstoke towards Popham Lane.
Road distances seem to be given by figures along some roads, but this is not regular, and no dot or milestone symbol marks where the distance figure belongs. Try following figures 68, 67, 66 back up the London road from Portsmouth - there are no more figures on sheet 11 as far as Petersfield. Numbering to the east of Fareham, towards Cosham, runs 13, 14, ... 17 then beyond Cosham 5, 6, 7, ... and beyond Havant 8, 7, 6, ... towards Chichester. This is not very helpful.

image snip from map

The map shows canals by a curvy line, shadowed on the west side ie to the east, perhaps with form lines. They are mostly labelled. Both road and accommodation bridges are shown. the frequency of the latter distinguishes a canal from a river. Locks are meant to be drawn by an arrow but are mostly missing from the plot. Other features, like winding points which can be shown at this scale, are ignored. If a symbol is declared in the table of symbols it is misleading for the user if the corresponding feature is not plotted regularly. These maps are an unsatisfactory guide to the canals. Fine engraving and accurate plotting do not make a good map; content matters.
Andover Canal     from Andover southwards through Stockbridge, to Redbridge. Labelled:-
Canal from Redbridge to Stockbridge
Only one lock is shown, by two arrows, pointing downstream which is not the best convention, near Grove Place. This is the 18th lock identified on Whitworth's map 1770; other locks are missing.

Salisbury to Southampton Canal     from near Alderbury, outside Salisbury, Wiltshire, to the Andover Canal by Mottisfont, partly overlain by a railway on later maps. Also from Redbridge to Southampton. No locks. Not labelled.

Basingstoke Canal     from Basingstoke eastwards and out of the county. Labelled:-
Basingstoke Canal
The tunnel at Greywell is labelled:-
but does not show the line of canal underground. A single arrow marks the ?stop lock at Greywell, but no other locks seem to be shown on the canal right down to the River Wey in Surrey. There is a winding point at Winchfield Hurst, but no others. Rushmoor Flash is drawn, but none of the others in the area, which are as large or larger. The aqueduct across the Blackwater River is labelled:-

Itchen Navigation     various sections linking with the river channel, from the River Itchen about South Stoneham, just above Mansbridge, to Winchester. Labelled:-
Itching River
There could be one lock marked south east of St Cross.

Titchfield Canal     Clearly drawn from the River Meon at Titchfield to The Solent by Hill Head. Not labelled.

image snip from map

When the Old Series was first published there were no railways. Railways were added on later printings by a double line with cross lines, often labelled with a version (not reliable) of the railway's name. Cuttings and embankments are shown by hachures; over and under bridges indicated; viaducts drawn with a row of v pillars and label 'Viaduct'; tunnels shown by a double dotted line and label 'Tunnel'; stations drawn by a block or two and label 'Station' or 'Railway Station'. Looking closely at the engraving it is possible to see how the engraving is added to an existing plot.
The Map Collection does not have a set of sheets of one period, so it is not sensible to survey railways as a whole for the county. An example from sheet 11 is:-
London and Southampton Railway     passing on the west side of Winchester, where there is a:-
then down the Itchen valley, 'Station' outside Bishopstoke; and on to:-
Railway Station
at Southampton. The line is labelled:-
Southampton and London railway

There are figures beside some lines, eg:- 80, 81, ... starting at Southampton along the Southampton and Dorchester Railway. These are probably distances from London.

A miscellany of other features are marked and/or labelled on the maps. None give the impression of being consistently, reliably, surveyed. What is shown is, nevertheless, evidence for the individual place shown, even if the coverage does not provide overall evidence of what there was of the particular feature. Some one-off features are:-
Redbrook Tan Yard [S of Fordingbridge]
Hill Pound [NE edge of Waltham Chace]
County Lunatic Asylum [N of Funtley]
Dog-kennel [North Park Farm, SE of Stockbridge]


Numerous antiquities are noticed, eg:-
image snip from map

Tumuli [on St Catherine's Hill]
image snip from map

Barrow [hatched circle, SE of Yateley]
Seven Barrows [N of Litchfield]
Ladle Hill [hillfort?]
Devils Ditch [SW of St Mary Bourne]
Harrow Way [N of Overton]
Caesars Camp [SW of Aldershot]
Deanbury Hill [hillfort]
Kent Barrow
Tumulus [SW of Crawley]
Ancient Entrencht. [near Toothill]
Some less ancient sites are labelled in english black letter, eg:-
Priory (Remains of)
to the south east of Southwick. Hillforts are drawn by rings of hachures, tumuli by little circles of hachures.

roman roads    

Quite a number of roman roads are noticed, eg:-
Roman Road
labelled WSW of Freemantle Park, and more helpfully:-
image snip from map

Roman Road from Old Sarum to Winchester [S of Kings Sombourne]
Roman Road to Porchester [N of Morestead]
The road is indicated by an embankment of hachures, perhaps partly including existing modern tracks or roads. One interesting example is seen where the fairly straight road from Winchester to Otterbourn turns away to the west. There is no track or embankment, but along the line to the south is labelled:-
from Bitterne
which was roman Clausentum.

Inns are labelled here and there, not in towns, eg:-
image snip from map

Public Ho.
P. Ho.
Red Lion [S of Stratfield Turgis]
The Plough [Bramshill]
Qn Charlotte Inn [E of Andover]
Dean Gate Inn
Deluge Hut [SW of Crawley]

water mills    

Water mills are just labelled, perhaps with their specialised purpose, eg:-
image snip from map

Horsebridge Mill
Fulling Mill [S of Froyle]
Mill [nr Neatham]
Kingsclere Mill
Paper Mill [E of Whitchurch]
Corn Mill [SE of Bishops Waltham]
Wood Mill [South Stoneham]
Windmills have a drawing of a post mill, even if it is a tower mill as at Bursledon.
image snip from map

Bursledon Mill
Broad halfpenny Mill
Charlton Wind Mill
and maybe there is just a clue in a hill name, eg:-
Windmill Hill [NW of Farnborough]

Salterns are marked by an outline with diagonal cross hatching, often labelled, eg:-
Bounds Saltern [E of Fawley]
Great Saltern [no symbol, E coast of Portsea Island]
and a large area of hatching:-
image snip from map

Salt Works
on the coast between Lymington and Milford. There salterns, larger and smaller, all along the coasts of the islands and mainland from Langstone Harbour to beyond Lymington.

Brickworks are noticed, labelled as:-
Brick Yard
Brick Field
but mostly:-
Brick Kiln

peat diggings    
There are
Peat Pits
SSW of Stockbridge, and in other parts of the county.

osier beds    
S of Emsworth is an:-
Osier Farm

A couple of small ship yards are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Ship Yard [east bank of Beaulieu River]
Baileys Hard [west bank of Beaulieu River]
both downstream of Beaulieu.

image snip from map

Telegraph [ENE of Wickham]
Bramshaw Telegraph
Telegraph [ESE side of Toothill]
Telegraph [on Portsdown N of Cosham]
Telegraph [by Charlton Windmill]

race courses    
Some race courses are shown on the maps. For example on Worthy Down there is an oval track with marker posts:-
image snip from map

Race Course / Booth / Stand
By Stockbridge on the downland to the north west there is a less well defined track, with some marker posts:-
Stockbridge Race Ground

army camps    
At Aldershot there are the arrays of the lines, labelled:-
North Camp
South Camp
Cavalry Barracks
Infantry Barracks

image snip from map

New Forest Union House [SW of Redbridge]
Portsea Island Union House
Fareham Union House
Poor House
A union is a parish union, a joint authority for the Poor Law purpose.

On one road, it is not clear which, south east of Swanmore is:-
Hill Pound

Marked by a drawing of a post with crossbeam and two dangling items is:-
image snip from map

outside Bishops Waltham on the road to Wickham, on the edge of Waltham Chace.

On Breamore Down, in the trees is what looks like a circle of standing stones on:-
image snip from map

Mizaze Hill
which should be the Mizmaze.

Some posts are marked, drawing of a post and labelled, eg:-
Woolmer Post [on Hatchet Green E of Hale]
Dibden Post [N of Dibden]
Winkton Post [N of Hinton Admiral]
Picked Post

Several monuments are noticed, eg:-
image snip from map

Nelsons Monument
Rufus's Stone
Farley Monument
Heathcotes Monument [SW of Romsey]
A memorial Stone [ENE of Botley]

Hampshire Towns

the '21' old market towns are all shown on the map, with the following name spellings:-
Alton (sheet 12)
Andover (sheet 12)
Basingstoke (sheet 12)
Bishops Waltham (sheet 11)
Christ Church (sheet 16)
Fareham (sheet 11)
Fordingbridge (sheet 15)
Gosport (sheet 11)
Havant (sheet 11)
Kingsclere (sheet 12)
Lymington (sheet 11)
Alresford (sheet 11)
Odiham (sheet 12)
Petersfield (sheet 11)
Portsmouth (sheet 11)
Ringwood (sheet 15)
Romsey (sheet 11)
Southampton (sheet 11)
Stockbridge (sheet 12)
Whitchurch (sheet 12)
Winchester (sheet 11)


Two particularly accessible books about the history of Ordnance Survey maps are:-
Harley, J B (intro) & O'Donoghue, Yolande (intro): 1981: Old Series Ordnance Survey Maps of England and Wales: Margary, Harry (Lympne Castle, Kent): vol.3: ISBN 0 903541 03 3

Harley, J B: 1975: Ordnance Survey Maps; a descriptive manual: Ordnance Survey (Southampton, Hampshire)

Mudge, William & Colby, Thomas: 1811: Account of the Trigonometrical Survey, ...: (London)

Owen, Tim & Pilbeam, Elaine: 1992: Ordnance Survey; map makers to Britain since 1791: Ordnance Survey (Southampton, Hampshire) & HMSO:: ISBN 0 31 00498 8 (pbk)

button map type OS 1810s Old Series -- menu of resources
button Sheet numbers, names, and corners, for Hampshire -- OSV6CRNR.txt
button Map folding, some examples -- OSV6FOLD.txt
button NGR overlay on 10 mile to 1 inch index sheet for Hampshire sheets -- OS14NGR.txt

button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.8 -- map (sheet 8)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.9 -- map (sheet 9)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA1998.91 -- map (sheet 10)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.11 -- map (sheet 11)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.12 -- map (sheet 12)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.14 -- map (sheet 14)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.15 -- map (sheet 15)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.1.16 -- map (sheet 16)
button source item -- HMCMS:FA2003.8 -- index map

button list of map notes

HantsMap Notes -- ORDNCE6.txt
MN: 12.2.2003
last edit: 18.7.2003