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NOTES from PHILIPS' MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1857-1900

These notes are taken from the map of Hampshire, by George Philip and Son, London and Liverpool, Lancashire, drawn about 1857, published in an edition about 1900. The map studied is in a private collection.
map type: HantsMap & Philip 1857-1900
The map was probably first included in Philips' County Atlas of England and Wales, 1857. The engraved plate was printed by lithographic transfer; as a colour litho print was one of the first series of maps to be coloured mechanically. The map size is: wxh, sheet = 36x44cm; wxh, map = 338x413mm. The history of this map is described in:-
Smith, David: 1985: Victorian Maps of the British Isles: Batsford (London):: ISBN 7134 4178 X


MAP FEATURES

title    
map maker    

Printed lower left:-
image snip from map

HAMPSHIRE
Printed at the bottom:-
GEORGE PHILIP & SON, LONDON & LIVERPOOL.

orientation    
up is N    

The map has no indicator of orientation except the graticule, the latitude and longitude grid. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line    
scale    

Printed lower left is a scale of:-
image snip from map

English Miles
chequered and labelled in miles. The 8 miles = 52.1 mm giving a scale 1 to 241716. The map scale is about:-
1 to 240000
4 miles to 1 inch
The scale has been estimated from the position of mrket towns using DISTTAB.exe software to do the sumes. This gives a scale 1 to 246603. The map scale is ablout:-
1 to 250000
4 miles to 1 inch

lat and long scales    
lat and long grid    
index grid    

image snip from map

The map has a graticule, latitude and longitude grid, printed at 10 minute intervals, for a trapezoid projection. The grid is labelled in the borders at 10 minute intervals. The ratio of the longitude scales top/bottom is 1.01; this is close to the 'correct' value, 1.02, for the latitude range. The ratio of latitude to longitude scales is 1.58, exactly the value for a 'square' map. The graduations at the bottom, longitude, are labelled:-
W. from Greenwich
The
longitude, Winchester = 1d 18.5m W
which accords with the Greenwich prime meridian.
The map includes from 0d 45m to 1d 55m W, from 50d 30m to 51d 25m N; the whole of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Odd corners of the county stick out beyond the borders of the map.
The borders also have labels for the graticule cells; A..H from left to right and 1..6 from top to bottom, so the graticule can be used as a simpler index grid.

table of symbols    
Printed lower left is information about some of the symbols used on the map:-
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Railways ... [bold line, dot] Station
Roads ... [double line, tinted brown]
The colouring represents the Parliamentary Divisions & Parliamentary Boroughs.
Each Division of the County returns ... ... 1 member
The Boroughs of Portsmouth & Southampton each return 2 members
-ditto- Christchurch & Winchester -ditto- 1 member

sea area    
sea tinted    
buoys    

The sea area is tinted by overall shading with blue lines. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
ENGLISH CHANNEL
SOUTHAMPTON WATER
Stokes Bay
Features are not marked in the sea except:-
Buoy of the Royal George
which sank in 1782, and whose wreck was mostly cleared away in the mid 19th century because it was a hazard to navigation.

coast line    
coast tinted    
headlands    
harbours    
lighthouses    

image snip from map

The coast line is tinted blue. Some headlands are labelled, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
Stone Point
Gilkicker Point
The coast is finely plotted, estuaries and harbours in some detail. The larger harbours are labelled, eg:-
PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR
Langston Harbour
Off Cadland Park is a:-
Quay
On Hurst Point there is a:-
Light Ho.

coastal defence    
castles    
fortifications    

A number of the old coastal defence castles and some of the later fortifications and other related features are labelled:-
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Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
Victoria Hosp.
Browndown Ft.
Fort Monckton
Haslar Hospital
[fortification round Gosport]
[fortification along Ports Creek]
image snip from map

Dock Yard [and fortifications]
[fortification round Portsmouth]
Southsea Castle
Lumps F.
Cumberland Fort

rivers    
ponds    
bridges    
ferries    

Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering upstream. Braiding might be shown, as in the Avon near Ringwood. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

R. Blackwater
R. Itchen
The Bourne Rivulet is labelled as the Test; this is not an unusual difference of opinion about which stream is the Test headwater.
A pond might be drawn in outline, shaded with blue and its boundary tinted blue as:-
Fleet Pond
There are other, unlabelled, ponds as in Paultons, Hackwood and other parks.
The sea inlet between Exbury and Lymington is labelled:-
Sowley Pond
Bridges are not particularly marked, but are implied by a road crossing and interrupting a river. A few are labelled, eg:-
Kilecombe Br [Kitcombe]
Hern Bridge [Hurn]
At Hythe the pier into Southampton Water is drawn and the Hythe Ferry crossing marked by a dotted line.

relief    
hill hachuring    

Some relief is indicated by hill hachuring, and a few hills are labelled, not all with hachures, eg:-
image snip from map

Butser Hill
Quarley Hill
Hampton Ridge
Worthy Down

woods    
forests    

Woodland is indicated by groups of small tree symbols with dotting to suggest rough ground or undergrowth. Some woods, or forests, are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

Highden Wood
Farley Wood
NEW FOREST
BERE FOREST [East Bere Forest]
Most of the old great forests are not noticed.

parks    
Parks are drawn in outline, the interior pecked and tinted green. The park might enclose buildings, roads, ponds, rivers, trees, etc. Some parks are labelled by name or the name of its house, eg:-
image snip from map

Hackwood Park
Bramshill Park
Dogmersfield Ho.

county    
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The county boundary is a dotted line, and is tinted by the tinting of the electoral areas.. Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
WILTSHIRE
and have a number of settlements, roads and railways to show how Hampshire fits into its surrounding area.

electoral data    
Parliamentary divisions and boroughs are bounded by a dot dash line, and each area has a tint on the inside of its boundary. At this date, about 1900, the areas are as follows.
Divisions:-
N. OR BASINGSTOKE [orange]
E. OR PETERSFIELD [green]
S. OR FAREHAM [magenta]
W. OR ANDOVER [pink]
NEW FOREST [yellow]
and the Isle of Wight, pink.
Boroughs:-
Portsmouth
Southampton
Winchester
Christchurch
A total of 12 members of Parliament.

settlements    
Settlements are marked by a group of blocks or shading for populated areas, perhaps a cross (+) for a church. They are differentiated by style of labelling.
city    
town    
group of blocks, or shading for built up areas; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER
SOUTHAMPTON
image snip from map

ALTON
STOCKBRIDGE
There is no attempt to depict a street plan in towns.

village     a few blocks and perhaps a cross (+) for a church; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

West Worldham
Broughton

hamlet     a block or two; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Oakhanger
Middle Wallop
This style of lettering is used generally for labelling other features on the map.


roads    
image snip from map

A network of roads is drawn on the map by double lines. Major roads are broader and tinted brown; minor roads narrower, untinted.
A few road junctions are labelled, eg:-
Five Lanes End [north of Upton Grey]
St. Johns Cross [cross roads, south of Abbots Ann]
Lopcombe Corner is not named.

railways    
image snip from map

Railways are drawn by a bold solid line; stations have a small dot and are labelled:-
Sta
except a few named stations, eg:-
Sway Sta
The important junction to the west of Basingstoke is labelled:-
Worting Junction
The bold line of the railway become an unfilled double line where it might interfere with existing labels on the map. Railways will have been added throughout the life of the map's engraved plate. The railways shown are listed below with their original name and date of opening, and their map label if there is one:-
London and Southampton Railway    
London & South Western Raily.

Bishopstoke to Gosport branch railway    
Chichester to Portsmouth branch railway    
Brighton Railway

Eastleigh to Salisbury branch railway    
Southampton and Dorchester Railway    
London & South Western Raily.

Berkshire and Hampshire Railway    
Reading Branch

Fareham to Cosham branch railway    
Reading, Guildford and Reigate Railway    
Reading & Reigate Raily.

Farnham to Alton branch railway    
Alton Branch S.W. Raily.

Basingstoke and Netley railway    
Salisbury and Andover Branch

Lymington Railway    
Portsmouth Railway    
Direct Portsmouth Raily.

Ringwood, Christchurch and Bournemouth Railway    
Bishops Waltham Railway    
Stokes Bay Railway and Pier Co    
Petersfield Railway    
Andover and Redbridge Railway    
Mid Hants, Alton Lines, Railway    
[Alton Branch S.W. Raily.]

Salisbury and Dorset Junction Railway    
Hayling Railway    
Swindon, Grafton and Marlborough Railway    
Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway    
Hurstbourne and Fullerton branch railway    
Brockenhurst to Christchurch branch railway    
Southampton and Netley Railway    
Lee-on-the-Solent Light Railway    
?     branch railway from Fratton to Southsea

This includes railways built up to 1894, and does not include railways opened from 1901 onwards.

canals    
The only canal that is clearly marked is the:-
Basingstoke Canal
drawn by a wiggly line, pretty much like a river.
There is a double line, looking like a minor road, which could be the Titchfield Canal, from Titchfield to the Solent by Hill Head.

miscellaneous    
Miscellaneous features are shown; these are not listed extensively here. None of them appear to be serious attempt to map all the known features of the type in the county.

race courses    
There is a race course labelled NW of Stockbridge:-
Race Ground
On Worthy Down, north of Winchester, is an regular oval, labelled:-
Race Course
And north of Lyndhurst is another:-
Race Course

antiquities    
hillforts    
tumuli    

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On Quarley Hill there is a double dotted outline of a hillfort. There are others, at Old Winchester Hill for example, and, south east of Ashley this symbol is labelled:-
Anct. Entrenchment
Some tumuli are noticed, for example:-
Seven Barrows
north of Litchfield, and, north west of Botley a circle labelled:-
Tumulus

antiquities    
roman roads    

Some roman roads are labelled, eg:-
Roman Road
south of Litchfield, part of the route from Silchester to Sarum. To the West of Winchester again:-
Roman Road
on the route from Winchester to Salisbury.

salterns    
A couple of blocks, for a small settlement or buildings, are labelled:-
image snip from map

Salt Works
between Lymington and Milford.

monuments    
North of Farley Chamberlayne is a square labelled:-
Farley Monument
A stone in the New Forest is labelled:-
Rufus Stone
And on Portsdown there is:-
Nelson Monument

beacons    
A hill is labelled:-
Burley Beacon

inns    
A few inns are noticed, for example:-
image snip from map

Lion Inn [north of Cliddesden]
Travellers Rest [north of Freefolk]
Hen & Chickens [Froyle]

shipping routes    
The shipping routes to Ryde, isle of Wight from Stokes Bay pier and from Portsmouth Harbour, and drawn by dotted lines.

camps    
Arrays of dots mark the lines at Aldershot, labelled:-
image snip from map

North Camp
South Camp


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HantsMap Notes -- PHILIP5.txt
MN: 26.2.2003
last edit: 6.3.2003