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NOTES from PRATT'S ROAD ATLAS of ENGLAND AND WALES, 1905

FA2001.138  
These notes are made from a road book, Pratt's Road Atlas of England and Wales, road maps scale 6 miles to 1 inch, by George Philip and Son, 32 Fleet Street, London, 1905, published by Anglo-American Oil Co, 36-38 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London, 1915. The road book studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA2001.138.
map type: HantsMap & Pratt 1905
The road maps are colour printed. The road book size is: wxh = 13x22cm. These notes are strongly biased towards a Hampshire interest.

Cover and Title Page

The cover is printed in black and gold on green:-
PRATT'S PERFECTION MOTOR SPIRIT ... PRATT'S ROAD ATLAS OF ENGLAND AND WALES 6/- NET ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL CO., LTD.
and carries coats of arms indicating 'royal appointment' to HM The King and HM Queen Alexandra.
The title page is printed in red and black on white:
PURVEYORS OF MOTOR SPIRIT TO H.M. THE KING. H.M. QUEEN ALEXANDRA. PRATT'S ROAD ATLAS OF ENGLAND AND WALES FOR MOTORISTS
COPYRIGHTED 1905 Published by ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL CO., LTD., 36-38 QUEEN ANNE'S GATE, WESTMINSTER, LONDON, S.W. Engraved and Printed by George Philip & Son, Ltd., 32 Fleet Street, London E.C. REVISED EDITION, 1915.

Lighting Up Times

Before the title page there is a:-
PERPETUAL LIGHTING-UP TABLE
With lighting up time in hours and minutes tabulated in 12 rows, for each month, in 6 columns, for the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th day. A note at the foot states:-
The above figures are for London and District; in other parts of the country the times vary to the extent of a few minutes. The figures in italics for the months from April to September inclusive represent 'Summer Time'.
I think someone from the north of England might suggest that lighting up time is more than a few minutes different?

General Maps

Before the series of road maps there are two general maps. The first is a Railway Map of the British Isles at about 80 miles to 1 inch, showing principal and some minor routes. The second is an index map of England and Wales showing the page numbers for the 70 road map.

ROAD MAP FEATURES

Hampshire is covered by plates 9, 11-12, 13-14, and 30-31.
table of symbols    
An explanation for the series of road maps is given on a preface page:-
image snip from map

The dominant element of this is the:-
Diagrammatic Key to Colouring on Sectional Maps, pages 7 to 76, and Profiles.
Layer colouring is displayed as a mountain diagram, with a selection of places at their proper heights. The only Hampshire place is Basingstoke at about 325 feet. Map scales are declared:-
The Sectional Maps are drawn to a scale of 6 miles to 1 inch. The town plans, pages 87 to 96 are drawn on the scale 1 mile to 1 inch, and the Profiles, pages 97 to 104 are drawn on a horizontal scale of 8 miles to 1 inch.
Below is a scale line:-
Scale for Sectional Maps
and some map symbols:-
[bold red line] Main Roads [red line] Cross Roads [black line] Railways
The red figures (thus 9) give the mileage between the towns
[square black flag] Golf Courses

orientation    
up is N    

The maps are printed with North at the top of each sheet,as defined by the label text. Some sheets are printed in 'landscape' and some in 'portrait' on the sheet.

piano key border    
image snip from map

All the map have a piano key border around the open spread of two pages, which, printed separately, are designed as one map unit.
The page numbers for adjoining sheets are printed in a circle in the borders. For example, most of Hampshire is on pp.11-12, two landscape pieces. The adjoining sheets are 9 to the east, 29, 20, 31 to the north, 13,14 to the west. Sea is to the south.

scale line    
scale    

A scale line is printed on the table of symbols page preceding the road map pages, a:-
image snip from map

Scale for Sectional Maps
marked in miles to 5 then at 5 mile intervals. The 15 miles = 63.5 mm gives a scale 1 to 380160. The road map scale is about:-
1 to 380000
6 miles to 1 inch

lat and long grid    
Printed across each map is a latitude and longitude grid, a graticule, at 20 minute intervals. Parallels and meridians are labelled, eg:-
image snip from map

50 [degrees] 40 [minutes]
1 [degree]
20 [minutes]
Reading as accurately as possible from the map
longitude, Winchester = 1d 18.6m W
which accords with a prime meridian at Greenwich; Winchester is usually taken as being 1d 18.4m W.

sea area    
sea tinted    

image snip from map

The sea area is printed blue, with some sea areas labelled, eg:-
The Solent
Spithead
Southampton Water

coast line    
harbours    

The coast line is not emphasised.
Harbours are clearly recognisable, but not labelled.

rivers    
image snip from map

Above their estuaries, which are printed blue with the sea, rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering upstream. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Test
Itchen
The rivers shown in Hampshire include all the major streams; Stour, Avon, Lymington, Beaulieu, Test, Itchen, Hamble, Meon, Rother, Wey, Blackwater, Hart, Lyde, Loddon, Enborne, and a few tributaries.

relief    
layer colouring    

image snip from map

Relief is shown by layer colouring, printed without contour lines at the edges. The layers do not have equal vertical intervals. The table of symbols on a preface page explains:-
Heights in feet
under 100 [green]
100 to 250 [yellow]
250 to 500 [pale orange]
above 500 [orange]
The bold colours give the road maps a jolly appearance. Hills, downs, etc are generally not labelled.

forests    
Woodland is not generally noticed, but the:-
NEW FOREST
area is labelled.

county    
County areas are not noticed on the road maps.

settlements    
Settlements are marked by a circle or circles, differentiated also by style of labelling. Only places on routes are noticed.
city    
town    
double circle; labelled in upright sans serif block caps. eg:-
image snip from map

WINCHESTER
WHITCHURCH
Larger towns might be labelled in a slightly larger, serifed, block caps; in Hampshire:-
SOUTHAMPTON
PORTSMOUTH

town    
village    
hamlet    
circle; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Lymington
Alton
Stockbridge
Beaulieu
Middle Wallop


roads    
road distances    
gradient diagrams    

image snip from map

The network of roads is drawn by solid red lines, broad and narrow for main road and cross roads (a surprisingly old fashioned term?). Distances between towns are marked beside roads by red figures. You have to be careful how distances are understood, from which place to which?
The major routes across Hampshire are:-
from London; through Bagshot, Surrey; then Blackwater, Basingstoke, Whitchurch, Andover, Hampshire; Amesbury, Wiltshire; and west to Exeter, devon; and Lands End, Cornwall.
branch from basingstoke, through Sutton Scotney, and Stockbridge, Hampshire; then Salisbury, Wiltshire; and west.
branch from the Basingstoke-Stockbridge road, through Popham to Winchester, Hampshire AND from Winchester through Romsey, Lyndhurst, Hampshire, then Christchurch to Poole, Dorset; and beyond.
from London; through Bagshot, Surrey; across a corner of Hampshire; through Farnham, Surrey; then Alton, New Alresford, Winchester, to Southampton, Hampshire AND from Southampton, Hampshire; to Salisbury, Wiltshire AND a link to Lyndhurst etc.
from London; through Guildford and Godalming, Surrey; then Liphook, Petersfield, Horndean, Cosham, to Portsmouth, Hampshire.
from Southampton, through Fareham, Cosham, Havant, Hampshire; to Chichester, West Sussex; and beyond AND a branch from Fareham to Gosport, Hampshire.
from Oxford, Oxfordshire; through Newbury, Berkshire; then Whitchurch to Winchester, Hampshire.
The pages after the road maps have gradient diagrams, road profiles, of a number of the main routes. The horizontal scale is about 8 miles to 1 inch; the base line marked and labelled at 5 mile intervals. The vertical scale is about 1100 feet to 1 inch; there are horizontal rules at 100, 250 and 500 feet, and the 'land' below the road line is layer coloured. Various places, settlements on hill tops, are labelled along the route. Each road profile is titled.
The road profiles that cross Hampshire are:-
image snip from map

LONDON TO PORTSMOUTH - from London, through Guildford and Godalming, and climb over Hindhead, Surrey; then Liphook, over hills via Rake to Sheet and Petersfield, up over War Down, down through Horndean and Waterloo, up over Portsdown, down to Cosham, Hilsea and Portsmouth, Hampshire.
LONDON TO SALISBURY - from London; through Bagshot, Surrey; over low hills to Blackwater, Hartford Bridge, Hartley Row, Hook, Nately Scures, Basingstoke, Worting, Oakley Sta, Overton, Whitchurch, Hurstbourne Priors, Andover, Middle Wallop, Hampshire; then up over downs to Salisbury, Wiltshire.
Page 105 illustrates types of four road sign:-
image snip from map

White ring; for a 10 mile per hour speed limit, or less.
Red disk; prohibition.
Red triangle; caution.
White diamond for other 'Notices under the Act'.
These signs are the first official road signs, defined by government legislation, the Motor Car Act 1903. There was a general speed limit of 20 miles an hour in 1903, so the lower speed restriction was all that was needed.
Hands, Stuart: 2002: Road Signs: Shire Publications:: ISBN 0 7478 0531 8

Page 106 gives a table giving the speed in miles per hour against the time for 1 mile. The times are in minutes and seconds from 1 min. 0 sec. in steps of 1 second, to 6 min. 0 sec, a range of speeds from 60 mph to 10 mph. This is particularly useful if there was still a general speed limit of 20 miles per hour!

railways    
Railways are drawn by a bold black line, stations marked by a circular or rectangular dot. Stations not labelled by a settlement name are labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
image snip from map

Oakley Sta.
Fleet Sta.

miscellaneous    



golf courses    
image snip from map

Only one miscellaneous feature is regularly marked, golf courses, by a small black rectangular flag on a low post. In Hampshire these are at:-
Aldershot, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Bishops Waltham, Bordon, Botley, Brockenhurst, Burley, Christchurch, Cosham, Fareham, Fleet, Gosport, Hartley Row, Lee on the Solent, Lymington, Lyndhurst, Milton, New Alresford, North Tidworth, Petersfield, Portsmouth, Preston Candover, Romsey, Rowlands Castle, South Hayling, Southampton, Swaythling, Winchester.


Advertisements

Throughout the book there are one line comments, page headers, page footers, interspersed in text, advertising Pratt's Perfection Spirit, and other products.

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HantsMap Notes -- PRATT1.txt
MN: 26.3.2004
last edit: 8.4.2004