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Raynbird c1860
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These notes are taken from the Geological Map of Hampshire by William and Hugh Raynbird, published about 1860. The map studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1998.211.
map type: HantsMap & Raynbird c1860


map maker    

Printed upper left:-
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GEOLOGICAL MAP of HAMPSHIRE Reduced from the Ordnance Survey BY W. & H. RAYNBIRD.

north point    
up is N    

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Printed on the right is a north point with an E-W cross line; North marked by an arrow. The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line    

Printed lower right is a:-
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chequered in miles to 5 then in 5 mile intervals , labelled 0..5 then in 5s. The 20 miles = 71.4 mm giving a scale 1 to 450797 assuming a statute mile. The map scale is about:-
1 to 450000
7 miles to 1 inch

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
The Solent
Christ Church Bay
Southampton Water

coast line    
coast tinted    

The coast line is tinted for emphasis. A few headlands are noticed, eg:-
Hengistbury Head
Selsea Bill
The larger harbours are labelled, eg:-
The foreshore of The Solent and Southampton Water, and the channels in the harbours, are outlined by a dotted line.

coastal defence    

Several of the old coastal defence castles are labelled:-
Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
Netley Castle
Southsea Castle
but none of the more recent fortifications.


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Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering inland from their estuaries. A couple are labelled:-
Dark Riv [which seems to be Beaulieu River]
Most of Hampshire's river system from the coast are drawn, with tributaries. Other river systems are less well treated.
A rectangular pond, crudely shaded, is drawn and labelled:-
Fleet Pond
and there are possible ponds or lakes elsewhere, for instance at Bishopstoke?

hill hachuring    

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Relief is suggested by hill hachuring, but it does not give a clear summary of the bones of the county. Considering this is a geological map, this is a pity. Some hills are labelled, eg:-
Deanbury Hill
Ports Down

A few beacons are noticed incidentally by hill names:-
Beacon Hill [Burghclere Beacon]
Beacon Hill [Lomer Beacon]
Popham Beacon
labelled without any hill.


Some woodland areas are shown by tree, bush, and undergrowth symbols, which might be labelled, eg:-
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FOREST OF BERE [East Bere Forest]
Harewood Forest
The last in three areas bounded by dotted lines. Also notice:-
Woolmer Forest
drawn ,correctly, without trees; and just to its north:-
which should be 'Alice Holt', and should have trees but hasn't.

A few parks are drawn in outline filled with trees, bushes, etc. These might be labelled with a park name, or house name, eg:-
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The Grange [N of New Alresford]
Brockenhurst Park
Hursley Park

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The county boundary is a dash dot line tinted for emphasis. The county area is labelled:-
Adjacent counties are divided by a similar boundary, not tinted, and labelled, eg:-

Settlements are shown by groups of blocks, or a block, or just a cross (+), differentiated by style of lettering.
city     group of blocks; labelled in bold upright block caps:-
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town     group of blocks; labelled in bold upright lowercase text, eg:-
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in sans serif upright block caps.

village     a block or two, or perhaps just a cross (+); labelled in medium italic lowercase text, eg:-
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Twyford [cross]
Upper Wallop [2 blocks]
Eversley [2 blocks and a cross]

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A network of roads is drawn by solid double lines. When you look closely you realise the network is not a satisfactory road map; roads end abruptly, some well known roads are missed, etc. A couple of roads are drawn dotted, near Grateley and near Gosport. This does not seem to mean an unfenced road, but might imply a road abuilding.

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Railways are drawn by a line with cross lines. Some are labelled. Stations are mostly taken for granted, but notice:-
Dock Sta.
at Southampton. Not all tunnels are noticed, but the two N of Winchester are labelled:-
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written across the line, which is not hidden or dotted.
The railways shown are:-
SOUTH WESTERN RY. [London and Southampton Railway, 1840]
SALISBURY AND EXETER BRANCH [Basingstoke and Salisbury Railway, 1857]
GOSPORT JUNCTION RAILWAY [Bishopstoke to Gosport branch railway, 1842]
SOUTHAMPTON AND DORCHESTER RAILWAY [Southampton and Dorchester Railway, 1847]
... [Eastleigh to Salisbury branch railway, 1847]
... [Portsmouth Railway, 1859]
... [Farnham to Alton branch railway, 1852]
... [Fareham to Cosham branch railway, 1848]
... [Chichester to Portsmouth branch railway, 1847]
which suggests a date for the map about 1860.

table of strata    

Printed at the bottom is a guide to the colours and codes labelling the geological areas on the map. Each stratum has a rectangle of colour labelled with a letter number code, and labelled below with a name. The sequence, left to right is:-
h1 Weald Clay & Hastings Sands
h2 Lower Green Sand
h2ii Sandstone
h2iii Clay
h3iiii Sands
h3 Gault
h4 Upper Green Sand
h5 Chalk
i2 Plastic Clay
i3 London Clay
i4-7 Uppr Mid & Lowr Bagshot
i4 Lowr Bagshot
i5 Bracklesham
i6 Barton Clay
i7 Upr Bagshot Sands
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i8 Osborne & Headon Beds
i9 Bembridge Beds
i10 Hempstead Beds
-- Alluvium
The areas on the map are bounded by dashed lines, coloured to correspond, and labelled with the letter number code.
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Because the printed colours on geological maps can fade, and anyway might differ from batch to batch in production, the letter number coding was introduced to make it certain which stratigraphic area was which. This is particularly important when separate sheets have to be used together. The code system was introduced by Sir Roderick Murchison, Director of the Geological Survey, in 1856. A letter to Longmans, publishers in London, May 1856, sets out his ideas on the matter. See:-
see:- MURCH1.txt
The codes on Raynbirds's map are not identical to the 1856 index of colours from Murchison, they are closer to an 1865 version of the colours (information by BGS). This suggests that their map was drawn in the period 1860-65.


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The Basingstoke Canal is drawn with a tapering wiggly line like a river. It comes from the Hampshire/Surrey border as far as Winchfield, crossing other rivers on its route. I feel the engraver did not understand what he was copying.

In the New Forest near Minstead is:-
Rufus Stone

roman camps    

On the Hampshire/Surrey border west of Aldershot is a rectangular outline labelled:-
Caesar's Camp

religious houses    
East of Selborne is:-
Priory Temple
nicely muddling two places.

Graham McKenna at BGS sugests that the geological information on Raynbird's map of Hampshire does not tie in with the Board of Ordnance maps held at BGS. It is possible that it matches one of the versions of William Smith's map (1815).

button map type Raynbird c1860 -- menu of resources
button Raynbird Family -- RAY1BIO.txt
button Hampshire Records Old and New -- RAYNBD2.txt
button source item -- HMCMS:FA1998.211 -- geological map

button list of map notes

HantsMap Notes -- RAYNBD1.txt
MN: 29.9.2002
last edit: 22.10.2002