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Stukeley 1723
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NOTES from STUKELEY'S MAP of ANTONINE ITINERARIES, 1723

FA2001.171  
These notes are taken from an outline map of England and Wales with the Antonine Itineraries plotted by William Stukeley, 1723. It was published in A New Description of England and Wales by Herman Moll, and in Itinerarium Curiosum by William Stukeley, both London, 1724. The example studied is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA2001.171.
map type: HantsMap & Stukeley 1723
The notes are made with a strong Hampshire bias; detail in other parts of the map might be ignored.
The map shows signs of having been folded in its atlas, cut to make this practical. Its size is: wxh, sheet = 28x33cm; wxh, map = 245x272mm.

William Stukeley

William Stukeley was born 1687. He was an antiquary and author, and became Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries which he shared in founding. He died 1765.
The roman place names on the map, and their interpretation as contemporary places by William Stukeley in 1723, must not be regarded as 'truth'. More reliable authority is in River and Smith (see references), who believe that Stukeley, for place name interpretation, was:-
... an inventive romantic who represents a step backwards from the place reached by Camden, Horsley and others. ...
... alas, was an enthusiastic victim of the spurious De Situ Britanniae of 'Richard of Gloucester'; he [Stukeley] was a prime propagator of this fiction, and by his authority in his otherwise valuable book served to establish the text as part of the canon of our toponymy. ...
So: beware using place names from this map!
In most of his place labels Stukeley gives a latin version in italic lowercase, with an English version in upright lowercase beneath it.

Antonine Itineraries

The
Itinerarium Provinciarum Antonini Augusti
are a collection of 225 route descriptions for the roman empire; from the middle east to the west of Portugal and Wales, from north Africa to Scotland. Each itinerary is a list of place names with the distances from stage to stage. It is not clear who Antonini Augusti was. The itineraries are not all of one date. The routes in Britain have elements from the time of Trajan, 98-117, to Diocletian, 284-305; overall the data collection seesm to be in the 3rd century, say from AD214-284.

MAP FEATURES

title cartouche    
picture frame cartouche    

Printed upper right is a rectangular cartouche whose exact picture frame style is found on the Hampshire map from Moll's 1724 atlas:-
image snip from map

Ingratiam Itinerantium / Curiosorum, ANTONINI / Aug. ITINERARIUM per / BRITANNIAM. / tentavit W. Stukeley 1723.
roughly translated as:-
In gratitude to curious travellers, the Itineraries through Britain of Antonini Aug., attempted by William Stukeley, 1723.
The map is a plot of the Antonine Itineraries on an outline of England and Wales.

orientation    
up is N    

There is no compass rose; the map is printed with north at the top of the page.

lat and long scales    
scale    

The borders have scales of latitude and longitude with the meridians clearly converging up the page. The prime meridian, 0 degrees Longitude, passes through London. There are marks and labelling at 1 degree intervals. The map covers 2 degrees E to 6 1/4 degrees W, 50 degrees to 55 1/2 degrees N; all of England and Wales, the edges of France, Scotland and Ireland.
5 degrees latitude = 227.5 mm gives a scale 1 to 2446557; the map scale is about:-
1 to 2400000
39 miles to 1 inch

scale line    
scale    

A scale of
image snip from map

Romana Milliaria
is printed upper left, marked and labelled at 10 miles intervals. The 80 roman miles = 52.4 mm giving a scale about:-
39 roman miles to 1 inch.
A better estimate of scale can be made from town positions, comparing known town-town distances, using DISTAB.exe. The map scale is about:-
1 to 3500000
55 miles to 1 inch
The map maker's miles are a:-
roman mile = 1.41 statute miles

sea area    
sea plain    

The sea areas are plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
OCEANUS BRITANNICUS
for the English Channel.

coast line    
coast shaded    
harbours    
antiquities    

The coast line is shaded for emphasis. The coast line is also tinted; pale green-blue around England and Wales, pale green around France, pink for Scotland and Ireland, and the Isle of Man.
Some headlands are noticed, eg:-
Dumnoniorum Prom. / Start Pt.
where there is a roman place name.
Hampshire's harbours are not noticed. Elsewhere some are labelled, eg:-
Dubris Portus / Dover
Portus Madurni / Aldrington
The latter is an example of misinterpretation by Stukeley. It is likely to be Portus Ardaoni thought to be the roman fort at Portchester, Hampshire.

rivers    
antiquities    

Rivers are shown by a wiggly line. Hampshire has the Stour and Avon, Test, Itchin, and perhaps the Rother. Rivers are not labelled, but see:-
Tamesis Fl.
Sabrina AEstarium
at these great river mouths.

antiquities    
tribal areas    

Ancient british tribal areas are not generally noticed. Three areas are labelled, at the edges of roman influence:-
CORINAVII
DUMNONII
in the far south west, and:-
OTODINI
in the scottish borderlands.

settlements    
antiquities    

Settlements are positioned by a circle and most have a pair of towers to indicate a town. Less significant places have no, or smaller, towers. Only settlements along the itineraries are marked; labelled in Latin and English as noted above.
image snip from map

The places in Hampshire are:-
Regnum / Ringwood
Bragae / Broughton
Venta Belgarum / Winchester
Trausantum / Southampton
Vindoma / Silchester
and close around:-
Caleva Atrebatum / Farnham
Sorbiodunum / Old Sarum
Vindogladia / Winborn
Spina / Speen
Cunetio / Marleborough
The place name interpretations MUST be read in conjunction with a more recent authority, eg Rivet and Smith.

antiquities    
roman roads    

The itineraries are drawn as roads by double lines, tinted yellow. Each road is labelled, if you look carefully, with its number, eg:-
ITER XV.
and might be named, eg:-
VIA ICENIANA / Ikening Street
image snip from map

Four of the itineraries cross Hampshire. Their interpretations by Stukeley and by Rivet and Smith are compared in the lists below (my punctuation). Rivet and Smith do have the advantage of 250 years of scholarship and excavation evidence. And still ideas are not settled; the whereabouts of Brige is not agreed, for one instance.
Itinerary 7     Stukeley:-
ITER VII. - Londinium; Pontes / Stanes; Caleva Atrebatum / Farnham; Venta Belgarum / Winchester; Trausantum / Southampton; Regnum / Ringwood.
Rivet and Smith:-
Iter VII - Londinio; Pontibus / Staines; Galleva Atrebatum / Silchester; Venta Belgarum / Winchester; Clausentum / Wickham or Bitterne, Southampton; Regno / Chichester.

Itinerary 13     Stukeley:-
ITER XIII. - Isca Leg. II. Aug. / Caerleon; Burnium / Usk; Bescium / Old Town; Ariconium / Kenchester; Cicutio / Stretham; Glevum Colonia / Glocester; Durocorinium Dobunorum / Cirencester; Cunetio / Marleborough; Spina / Speen; Vindoma / Silchester.
Rivet and Smith:-
Iter XIII - Isca / Caerleon; Burrio / Usk; Blestio / Monmouth; Ariconio / Weston under Penyard; Clevo / Gloucester; Corinio / Cirencester; Durocornovio / Wanborough; Spinis / Woodspeen; Calleva / Silchester.

Itinerary 14     Stukeley:-
ITER XIV. - Isca Leg. II. Aug. / Caerleon; Venta Silurum / Caergwent; [cross the Sabrina / Severn]; Trajectus / Oldbury; Abona / Henbury; Aquae Sulis / Bath; Verlucio / Hedington; Cunetio / Marleborough; Spina / Speen; Vindoma / Silchester.
Rivet and Smith:-
Iter XIV - Isca / Caerleon; Venta Silurum / Caerwent; cross the Severn; Abone / Sea Mills; Traiectus / ? ; Aquis Sulis / Bath; Verlucione / Sandy Lane; Cunetione / Mildenhall; Spinins / Woodspeen; Calleva / Silchester.

Itinerary 15     Stukeley:-
ITER XV. - Isca Dumnoniorum / Exeter; Moridunum / Seaton; Durnovaria / Dorchester; Vindogladia / Winborn; Sorbiodunum / Old Sarum; Bragae / Broughton; Venta Belgarum / Winchester; Caleva Atrebatum / Farnham.
Rivet and Smith:-
Iter XV - Isac Dumnoniorum / Exeter; Moriduno / Sidford; Durnonovaria / Dorchester; Vindocladia / Badbury; Sorbiodoni / Old Sarum; Brige / Ashley; Venta Belgarum / Winchester; Vindomi / Wheatsheaf Inn; Calleva / Silchester.



References

Rivet, A L F & Smith, Colin: 1981: Place-Names of Roman Britain: Batsford:: ISBN 0 7134 2077 4

Horsley, John: 1723: Britannia Romana: (London)

Stukeley, William: 1776 (2nd edn): Itinerarium Curiosum: (London)


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MN: 26.11.2001
last edit: 27.11.2001