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Tunnicliff 1791
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NOTES from TUNNICLIFF'S MAP of HAMPSHIRE, 1791

FA1999.72.2  
These notes are made from the map of Hampshire by William Tunnicliff, land surveyor, Salisbury, Wiltshire, 1791. The map is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1999.72.2
map type: HantsMap & Tunnicliff 1791
The map is from a road book:-
Topographical Survey of the Counties of Hants, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall ... By WILLLIAM TUNNICLIFF, LAND-SURVEYOR. SALISBURY: ... M,DCC,XCI.

MAP FEATURES

map maker    
title    

Printed at lower left is:-
A New Map of HAMPSHIRE, by Willm. Tunnicliff, Land Surveyor. 1791.
The road book from which the map is taken gives his place of business as Salisbury, Wiltshire. No trace has yet been found of him in directories for that period in that area.

orientation    
north point    

The map has a north point with a cross line. North is marked by a fleur de lys; the other cardinal points are labelled 'E', 'S', 'W'.

lat and long scales    
hours from Greenwich    

There are latitude and longitude scales in the four borders of the map. They are chequered at 1 minute intervals, labelled at 10 minute intervals. The longitude scale is labelled:-
West Longitude from Greenwich
The scales are rectangular on the page.

scale line    
scale    

There is a scale line of 10 miles chequered in miles, length 80.4mm. The scale calculated from this is about 1 to 200167; the map scale is about:-
1 to 200000
3 miles to 1 inch
Another estimate of scale can be made from town positions, comparing known town-town distances using DISTAB.exe. The map scale is about:-
1 to 200000
3 miles to 1 inch

index grid    
This map has no index grid. Calculations have been made to overlay the National Grid system on the map, see:-
button see:- TUN1NGR.txt

table of symbols    
There is a table of symbols:-
EXPLANATION
which shows the signs for:-
Market Towns
Villages
Gentlemen's seats
Turnpike Roads
Borders of the County
Ditto of the Hundreds
Parks
Notice the useful distinction between great houses and villages.

sea area    
sea plain    
sandbanks    

The sea is plain. South of the Isle of Wight is labelled:-
ENGLISH CHANNEL
The Solent is labelled:-
THE INNER PASSAGE (ie The Solent)
And other sea areas are:-
CHRISTCHURCH BAY
SOUTHAMPTON WATER
A couple of sandbanks are marked north of Cowes.

coast line    
coast form lines    
harbours    
headlands    

The coast is drawn with a bold line plus form lines which extend into harbours and river estuaries.
Only a couple of harbours are labelled:-
Portsmouth Harbour
Langstone Harbour
The only headland labelled is:-
SPITHEAD

rivers    
Rivers are hardly shown on the map. Estuaries of Stour and Avon, Test, Itchen, and Hamble are drawn but none are extended inland. The map is basically a route map, not intended as a topographical map, and perhaps by this late date rivers are of small concern. There is nothing for rivers in the table of symbols. Rivers elsewhere, eg on the north and east borders of the county are not drawn. Bridges seem to be taken for granted; or at least the feasibility of crossing rivers is. At various places a road is interupted by a river estuary, eg at Redbridge and at Christchurch. But, it seems to be assumed that this is not a barrier in the route.

relief    
hill hachuring    

Some relief is shown by hill hachuring. For example, the downs near the Wiltshire border by Amesbury, and the long ridge of Portsdown. The relief shown is neither an overall guide to the shape of the county, nor a consistent guide to problems the traveller might meet.

beacons    
A beacon? or something, is drawn at Farley Mount west of Winchester.

woods    
forests    

Wood and forests are not shown except by some labelling, eg:-
NEW FOREST
FOREST OF EAST BERE

parks    
Parks are shown by a ring of fence palings enclosing a pecked area. The great house within, a Gentleman's Seat, has its own symbol, a small square. Either house or park might be labelled, eg;-
Husborne Park
Iver Lodge
A seat may not have a park drawn round it.

county    
The county boundary is a dashed line. the contiguous counties are labelled, eg:-
PART OF WILTSHIRE

hundreds    
A hundred boundary is a dotted line; and each hundred is labelled, eg:-
EVINGAR HUNDRED
Pt. of Barton Stacey Hundred

settlements    
Settlements are marked on the map within the county; plus a very few places outside, eg Salisbury. The symbols are graded for size of place.
city     buildings and tower; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
WINCHESTER

town     building and tower, ie a church symbol; labelled in lowercase upright text, eg:-
Fordingbridge

village     circle; labelled in lowercase italic text, eg:-
Worldham

house     A gentleman's seat has its own symbol, a square. This is used with or without a park fence. Places on or by a road are included. It is possible for a seat and a village to share a label, for example at Gruell (Greywell).


roads    
turnpike roads    

According to the table of symbols the roads shown are turnpike roads. They are drawn with a double line. Some care is taken by the engraver to draw road junctions clearly. The destination of roads leaving the county is usually labelled, eg:-
to London
from Devizes
'to' and 'from' do not seem to be used in a significant way? The labelling is missed in places, for example the road going to Chichester from Havant. Near Farnham none of the roads to it are labelled, but it is quite obvious where they point.
Route diagram
button see:- TUN1RTE.txt


antiquities    
roman roads    

Some roman roads are shown, labelled:-
Port Way
Icknield Way
Roman Way
The last is that west from Winchester; the usage of capital letters at this period does not allow the assumption that this is a road name.

canals    
Two canals are drawn, by a bold curvy line, labelled:-
Canal to the River Wey
Canal
for the Basingstoke Canal which has its branch north, and the Andover Canal.


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HantsMap Notes -- TUNNI1.txt
MN: 17.5.1999
last edit: 16.7.1999