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NOTES from the MARINERS MIRROUR, by LUCAS WAGHENAER, 1588

These notes are made from the atlas of sea charts, a pilot book, the Mariners Mirrour, by Lucas Janszon Waghenaer, 1583, english edition published by Anthony Ashley, 1588. The atlas studied is in the Cadbury Collection, Birmingham Central Library, given them by Alderman W A Cadbury 1937. The chart of special interest to Hampshire, the Sea Coasts of England between the Isle of Wight and Dover, is re-engraved by Theodore de Bry.
map type: HantsMap & Waghenaer 1583
A facsimile edition of the atlas has also been consulted, at the National Maritime Museum:-
Waghenaer, Lucas J: 1588 (English edn): Mariners Mirrour: Ashley, Anthony (London)

Waghenaer, Lucas J: 1966 (facsimile) & 1588 (English edn): Mariners Mirrour: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

The 1588 atlas at Birmingham is a leather bound volume, wxh: 29.5x42cm; embossed on the spine:-
ASHLEY'S / MAPS / LONDON / 1588
A few parts of the introductory text are transcribed for the help they give to understanding the chart from the dutch edition, that is relevant to Hampshire. Remember that all the notes might have a Hampshire bias.

Editions

The atlas was published in, at least, German, Latin, and English as well as the original Dutch. The original edition in Dutch, the first ever printed sea atlas, was the:-
Spieghel der Zeevaerdt
published in Leyden, 1584. The edition in German was :-
Spiegels der Seefart
published 1584-85. Translated into Latin it was the:-
Speculum Nauticum
published 1586, and again 1591. And in English it was teh:-
Mariners Mirrour
published 1588, the subject of these notes. In 1585 the atlas was brought ot the attention of the Privy Council by Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord Admiral of England. As a result the Clerk to the Privy Council. Sir Anthony Ashley was instructed to undertake a translation into English. The charts are much the same as the Latin edition, 1586, with titles etc replaced by English translations.
There are other editions.
Lucas Waghenaer was a hydrographer and pilot based at Enkhuizen. For the Latin edition his name is rendered as Aurigarius, 'helmsman'.

TITLE PAGE

THE MARINERS MIRROUR
Wherein playnly be seen the courses, heights, distances, depths, soundings, flouds and ebs, risings of lands, rocks, sands, shoalds, with the marks for th' entrings of the Harboroughs, Havens and Ports of the greatest part of Europe: their several traficks and commodities: together wth. the Rules and instrume~ts of NAVIGATION.
First made & set forth in divers exact Sea-Charts by that famous navigator LUKE WAGENAR of Enchuisen And now fitted with necessarie additions for the use of Eglishmen by
ANTHONY ASHLEY
Heerin also may be understood the exploits lately atchived by the right Honorable the L. ADMIRAL of Engal~d with her Maties. Navie and some former services don by that worthy Knight
Sr. FRA: DRAKE
Printed at the bottom of the title page is:-
Theodore de bry fecit

INTRODUCTION

There is a general introductory page:-
THE AUTHORS ADMONITION TO THE READER
FReendly Reader, for as much as all skillful and experienced in the art of Navigation, do well know, that certein of the sandy coastes and shoares, as also diverse mouthes and entries of rivers, ... have not alwaies their being in one self place, as in these Tables or Chartes, rightly, fitly & faithfully they are set down: I could do no lesse then admonish the thereof, that thou mightest diligently observe and marke them by these Mappes, as thinges most necessarie to be regarded. For it is perfectly knowen to all Pilots and Masters, that, by force of tempests and violence of boisterous windes, huge heaps of sand are so dispersed, that at length they are made even with the plaine Sea-shore.
...
... First I endevoured by all my studies, paines, diligence and care to draw the generall Sea-Cardes, and other particular plots, exactly and faithfully (as became mee) and in the most faultlesse forme that I could: because on them both the lives and goods of such as traficke and travail by Sea do depend ...
...
... But at length, overcome by the importunat suite of Mariners, Masters, and Marchants: but chiefly by reason of my sincere love and affection towards the commonweal, and posteritie: with the continuall instance and exhortation of many persons, of qualitie & judgeme~t which egged me on, and, both with promises and performance, holpe & furthered the the worke: I set upon it with a cheerful minde, and incessant labour: And printed the first part of this Mariners Mirrour, which conteineth the whole western Navigation, to wit, the coastes of Fraunce, England, Ireland, Scotland, Spaine, Portugall &c. & published it in the yeare of our Lord. 1583. being dedicated to the most famous Prince of Orenge ...
...
... ... England: where a booke of the Sea-cardes was presented at the Counsell table, by the moste Noble Lorde, my Lorde Charles Howard, Baron of Effingham, Lorde Admirall of England, and was esteemed by the chiefe personages of that grave Counsell, worthy to be translated and printed into a language familiar to all Nations, that it might bee both read and understood by all. Wherefore from that time, I purposed with my selfe, to performe the same, assoone as I might. Shortly after I printed and published th' other part of this MIRROUR, which co~prehendeth the whole Navigation of the German, Scottish and North Oceans, as also of the Northeast and Baltik Sea. This I dedicated to the States of Holland and Westfrizland, who gratiously and thankefully receaving it, rewarded mee with such recompence as whilest I live I shall never be able to deserve. This encouraged me, upon the former reasons, to procure, that the descriptions of these Cardes might be translated into Latine: to th' end, that, al nations, which understand that language, might reape both profit and pleasure out of the same: hoping that it will be very profitable unto all those which are studious in the knowledge of Navigation, and no lesse acceptable to al courteous readers, who may take likyng therof & accept of this my labour in thankefull manner.
Farewell, From Einchusen, 1586.
The translation for all nations was to be into Latin. Today we are used to English being the World Language; in the 16th century this was not so. An elizabethan school master, Richard Mulcaster, 1582, wrote that English was:-
of small reatch, it stretcheth no further than this Iland of ours, naie not there over all ...
Latin was at the start of its decline as a potential international tongue; declining perhaps because it never became standardised and never was reliably mutually intelligible. But English, though becoming a national standard for us, as other languages were each in their own country, had not yet shown any signs of growing to an international language.

GENERAL MAP

There is a general map of Europe's coasts:-
A Generall Carde, & discription of the Sea Coastes of Europa, and navigation in this booke conteynd
The harbours and places labelled on the south coast of England are:-
Lisert
Helford
Foye
Plymout
Torbay
Excester
Bruteport
Waymouth
S. Andries
Hampton
Portsmout
Arrundel
Tychester
Pemsey
Dover
The atlas has pages of tabulated information, amongst which there are sailing directions for travelling along the coasts:-
THE COURSE OF ALL THE COASTES OF HOLLAND, ZELAND, FRAUNCE, and Spaine, uppon what poynt and in what distance they are.
...
THE COURSES OF ENGLAND, Ireland and Scotland.
... ...
from Dover to the Shingles, or the Nesse poynt, south-west and by west, - leag. 7.
from the Nesse poynt unto the Beache, w.s.w. - leag. 6.
from the Beache to the Ile of Wight, west and by south - leag. 15.
from Wight unto Portland w. and by s. - leag. 10.
... ...
THE LATITUDES OR ALTITUDES OF THE POLE of the most famous places, poynts, and Capes, both of the Easterne and Westerne Navigation.
      De. Mi.
... ...        
Dover     51 12
Portland     50 40
... ...        

SOUTH COAST CHARTS

There are three south coast charts:-
THE SEA COASTES of England, from the Sorlinges by the landes end to Plymouth, with the havens and harbrowghes
The opening into the Bristol Channel; and from the Scilly Isles off Lands End, to the Mewstone on the east side of Plymouth Sound.
A DESCRIPTION OF THE Sea coastes of England. Betweene Plymmouth & Portland, with the cheefest havens thereof according unto theire Situation
From Ram Head on the west of Plymouth Sound, overlapping the chart above, to about Lulworth on the Dorset coast.
THE SEA COASTES OF ENGLAND betweene the Isle of Wight & Dover, with the principal havens [thereof] according to their situation and Appearing
Which is the chart whose features are described in more detail.

Waggoner

Within a few years of publication, Waghenaer's sea atlas had become known, in England, as a 'Waggoner'. An early example of this usage is in:-
A Sea Grammar, WITH THE PLAINE EXPOSITION of SMITHS Accidence for young Sea-men, enlarged ... Written by Captaine IOHN SMITH, ... LONDON, Printed by IOHN HAVILAND, 1627.
Having dealt with docks for shipbuilding, designing and building ships, names for everything, managing fights at sea, and so on, John Smith's chapter 15 includes:-
... what Bookes and Instruments are fit for a Sea-man ...
For to learne to observe the Altitude, Latitude, Longitude, Amplitude, the variation of the Compasse, the Sun's Azimuth and Almicanter; to shifte the Sunne and Moone, and know the tides, your Roomes, pricke your Card, say your Compasse, get some of these bookes; but practice is the best.
...
Waggoner
...
in a list of eleven books on navigation, seamanship, globes, etc.

button map type Waghenaer 1583 -- menu of resources
button instructions for the atlas -- WAG2INST.txt
button symbols on the charts -- WAG2SYM.txt
button sailing instructions and descriptive text, Hampshire -- WAG2SAIL.txt
button map features, Hampshire -- WAG2FTR.txt

button list of map notes

HantsMap Notes -- WAGHEN02.txt
MN: 17.2.2000
last edit: 28.7.2001