Old Hampshire Mapped


Camden's Britannia, Hampshire

Transcription of pages 258 to 273, about Hampshire, from one of the editions of Camden's Britannia. This text is believed to be the translation from Latin made by Philmore Holland about 1610. The pages used are loose sheets in the collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service item number HMCMS:FA1998.24.
(Italics and other font variations have been ignored, as have the marginal notes. Greek text has been left out, shewn by [ ] as this ascii text cannot handle such. As for typing errors - we have done our very best!)
Marginal annotations are added by us.
Index to marginal notations
Index map for towns
Notes about other editions
Norden' map of Hampshire, 1607


Camden's
Britannia,
Hampshire




[p.258]

HANTSHIRE

Hantshire
Belgae
Regni
commodities
Vespasian
NExt to Wilshire is that country which sometimes the Saxons called [Hanteschyr], and is now commonly named Hantshire: of which, one part that beareth farther within the land, belonged, no doubt, to the Belgae, the other which lieth upon the sea appertained, without question, to the Regni, and ancient people of Britaine. On the West it hath Dorsetshire and Wilshire, on the South the Ocean to bound it: on the East it joineth to Sussex and Surrie, and on the North it bordereth upon Berkshire. A small province it is, fruitfull in corne, furnished in some places with pleasant woods thicke and well growen; rich in plenteous pasture, and for all commodities of sea most wealthy and happie. It is thought that it was with the first brought under subjection to the Romans. For, our Histories report, that Vespasian subdued it, and very probable reasons there are inducing us to beleeve the same. For, Dio witnesseth, that Plautius and Vespasian, when they were sent by the Emperor Claudius against the Britaines, did give the attempt upon this Iland, with an armie divided into three parts, least if they should have ventured to land in place only they might have beene driven backe from the shore. Suetonius also writeth, that in this expedition Vespasian fought thirtie battailes with the enemie, and subdued the Isle of Wight which lieth against this country and two other right puissant nations with it. For which his victories, as also for passing over the Ocean so safely. Valerius Flaccus speaketh unto Vespasian himselfe, as one more fortunate than Iulius Caesar, in this maner.
Tug~ O Pelagi cui major apertit Fama, Caledonius postquam tua Carbasa vexit Oceanus, Phrygios prius indignatus Iulos.

And thou for Seas discovry whose fame did more appeare, Since that thy ships with sailes spred in Northren Ocean were, Which skorn'd before, of Phrygian line the Iulij to beare.

And of the very same Vespasian, Apollonius Collatius Novariensis, the Poet verified thus:
Ille quidam nuper faelice Marte Britannos Fuderat.

He verily of late by happie fight Had won the field, and Britains put to flight.

But how this war Titus delivered Vespasian his father, when he was very streightly besieged by the Britans: and how at the same time likewise, an adder grasped him about, and yet never hurt him, (which hee tooke as a lucky foretoken of his Empire) you may learn out of Dio and Forcatulus. I, for my part, (to come to my purpose) beginning at the West side of this province which make my perambulation along the sea coast and the rivers that runne into the Ocean, and after that survey the more in-land parts therof.

R.Avon
Charford
Natanleod
Ringwood
Regnum
R.Stour
Christchurch
Twinamburne
Alaun mouth
Hard by the Westerne bounds the river Aven carrieth a still streame and no sooner runneth into this shire, but it meeteth with the Fourd of Cerdicus, in old time Cerdicks-ford, afterward Cerdeford, and now by contraction of the word, Chardford, so named of Cerdic that Warlicke English-Saxon. For, heere the said Cerdic in a set battaile soe daunted the Britains, that not onely he enlarged the bounds of his Empire, but also delivered an easie warre unto his posterity: having before time in the yeere of our Salvation 508, after great conflicts in this tract, vanquished the most mighty King of the Britains, Natanleod, called also Nazaleod by others, with many of his people. Of whose name likewise, a small region reaching unto this place was termed
[p.258]
Natanleod, as we read in the Annals of the English Saxons: which I sought very curiously for, but hitherto could not find so much as any small sign or sample of that name: neither can I guesse who that Natanleod shoald be. But most certaine it is, that Aurelius Ambrose, at the very same time skirmished otherwhiles with the Saxons in this tract with alternative fortune: and yet those Chronicles of the English Saxons no where made mention of him; as who, (a thing that I have observed) being over much affectionate to themselves, reported only their owne fortunate battailes, and victories but never made words of their foiles & overthrowes. From thence the said river runneth on by Regnewood or Ringwood, called in the Domesday booke of England Rincewood. Which, that it was the same REGNUM, the chiefe towne of the Regni whereof Antoninus maketh mention, the accompt of the distance from other places, the remaines of the name and the very signification thereof doe plainly prove. For, Ring-wed by that Saxon addition seemeth to signify the Wood of the Regni. A towne in ancient time of great fame, as maybe gathered by the Hundred adjoining, which is named thereof: but now it is a well frequented mercate towne and no better: Aven being departed from hence, entertaineth the river Stoure coming down out of Dorsetshire, where betweene the meeting of these two streames, there standeth a prety towne of trade and well peopled. At this day of a Church there dedicated unto Christ, named Christ-church: but in old time Twinamburne, because it is situate betweene the two rivers, right in the same sense that Interamna in Italie hath his name. It was fortified in times past with a Castle, and beautified with an ancient Church of Prebendaries, which being built in the Saxons time and after repaired by Rau'ph Flammard Bishop of Durrham (who was Deane there) in the reigne of William Rufus, and by Richard de Riparijs Earle of Devonshire (whom King Henrie the first enfeoffed in this place) endowed also with great rents and revenewes, continued in very great name untill the daies of King Henrie the Eighth, and that fatall and finall houre of the Monasteries of England, Under this towne Stoure and Aven joining together doe emptie themselves into the sea at one mouth, which Ptolomee called the mouth of the River Alaun; and rightly too: For I cannot resolve with my selfe to thinke, that the river properly was named Aven, considering this is a common name, and the Britans by that terme, called all rivers. But I would take it, that some time it was called Alaun, because there remain yet some reliques (as it were) of that name in the villages upon it, to wit, in Allington, Allingham, &c.

William I
New Forest
William Rufus
Along the east banke of this river in this Shire, King William of Normandie pulled downe all the townes, villages, houses, and Churches far and neere, cast out the poore inhabitants, and when he had so done brought all within thirty miles compasse or thereabout into a forrest and harbour for wild beasts, which the English men in those daies termed Ytene, and we now call New forrest. Of which Act of his, Gwalter Maps who lived immediately after, wrote thus. 'The Conqueror tooke away land both from God and men, to dedicate the same unto wild beasts and Dogs-game: in which space he threw downe six and thirty Mother-churches, and drave all the people thereto belonging quite away.' And this did he, either that the Normans might have safer and more secure arrivall into England, (For it lieth over against Normandie) in case after that all his wars thought ended any new dangerous tempest should arise in this Iland against him: or for the pleasure which he tooke in hunting: or else to scrape and rape money to himselfe by what meanes soever he could: For, being better affected and more favorable to beasts than to men, he imposed very heavy fines and penalties, yea and other more grievous punishments, upon those that should medle with his game. but Gods just judgement not long after followed this so unreasonable and cruell act of the King. For, Richard his second sonne, and William Rufus King of England, another sonne of his, perished both in this Forrest: William by chance shot through with an arrow by Walter Tirell; the other blasted with a pestilent aire. Henrie likewise his grand child by Robert his eldest sonne, whiles hee hotely persued his game in this Chase was hanged amongst the bowghes and so died: that we may
[p.259]
learne thereby. How even childrens children beare the punishment of their Fathers sinnes. There goe commonly abroad certaine verses, that John White Bishop of Winchester made of this forrest: Which although they falsely make William Rufus to have ordained the same, yet because they are well liked of many, I am likewise well content heere to set them downe.
Templa adimit Divis, fora civibus, arva colonis Rufus, & instituit Beaulensi in rure forestam: Rex cervum in sequitur, Regem vindicta, Tirellus Non bene provisum tranfixit acumine ferri.

From God and Saint King Rus did Churches take, From Citizens town-court, and mercate place, From Farmer lands: New Forrest for to make, In Beaulew tract, where whiles the King in chase Pursues the hart, just vengeance comes apace, And King pursues. Tirrell him seing not, Unwares him flew with dint of arrow shot.

Beaulieu tract
sanctuary
He calleth it Beauley tract, for that King John built hard by, a prety Monasteri, for the pleasant situation called Beaulieu, which continued even unto our Fathers memorie, of great fame as being an unviolated sanctuarie & a safe refuge for all that fled to it: in so much that in times past, our people heere thought it unlawfull and an hainous offence by force to take from thence any persons whatsoever, were they thought never so wicked murderers or traitours: so that our Ancestors when they erected such Sanctuaries, or Temples (as they terme them) of Mercie, everywhere throughout England, seemed rather to have proposed unto themselves Romulus to imitate than Moses: who commaunded that wilfull murderers should be plucked from the altar and put to death: and for them onely appointed Sanctuarie, who by meere chance had killed any man.

sea coast
Henry VIII
Hurst Castle
Calshot Castle
Southampton
- Haven
S. Andrew's Castle
Netley Castle
Anton Bay
R.Test
But least the sea coast, for so long a tract as that forrest is heere, should lie without defence all open and exposed to the enimie, King Henrie the Eighth began to strengthen it with forts, for, in that foreland or promontorie shooting far into the sea: From whence we have the shortest cut into the Isle of Wight, hee built Hurst Castle, which commandeth sea ward every way. And more towards the East he set up also another fortresse or blockhouse, they name it Calshot Castle for Caldshore, to defend the entrie of Southampton Haven, as more inwardly on the other [shore] are the two Castles of S. Andrew, and Netly. For, heere the shores retiring as it were themselves a great way backe into the land, and the Isle of Wight also; butting full upon it doe make a very good harbour, which Ptolomee calleth The mouth of the river Trisanton, (as I take it) for Traith Anton: that is, Anton Bay. For, Ninnius and old writer giveth it almost the same name when he termeth it Trahannon mouth. As for the river running into it, at this day is called Test, it was in the foregoing age (as wee read in the Saints lives) named Terstan, and in old time Ant, or Anton: as the townes standing upon it, namely Antport, Andover and Hanton in some sort doe testifie.

Hamon
Southampton
Clausentum
Canute
So far am I of (pardon me) from thinking that it tooke the name of one Hamon a Romane, (a name not used among Romanes) who should be there slaine. And yet Geffrey of Monmouth telleth such a tale, and a Poet likewise his follower who pretily maketh these verses of Hamon.
... Ruit huc, illucqueruentem Occupat Arviragus, eiusque in margine ripae Amputat ense caput nomen tenet inde perempti Hammonis Portus, longumque tenebit in auum.

... Whiles Hamon rusheth heere and there within the thickest ranke, Arviragus encountreth him, and on the rivers banke, With sword in hand strikes of his head: the place of him thus slaine, Thence forth is named Hamons-Haven, and long shall so remaine.

But upon this Haven standeth South-hanton, a little Citie, neere unto which on
[p.260]
the North-east, there flourished in old time another of that name: which may seeme to be Antonine his CLAVSENTVM, by the distance of it, as well on the one side from Ringwood, as from Venta on the other. And as Trisanton in the British language signifieth the Bay of Anton, so Clausentum in the same tongue, is as much as the Haven of Entum. For, I have heard, that Claudh among the Britans, is that which the Graecians call [ ], that is, a forced Haven made by digging and casting up the earth. Now, that this place was called Hanton and Henton, no man needs to doubt, seeing in that booke wherin King William the first made a survey of all England, this whole shire is expressely named Hantscyre and in some places Hentscyre, and the very towne it self for the South situation of it, South-hanton. What maner of towne that Clausentum was, it is hard to say: but seated it was in that place, where the field is which now they call S. Maries; and reached even to the Haven: and may seeme also to have taken up the other banke or strand of the river: For, a little above at Bittern over against it, Francis Mills a right honest gentleman there dwelling, showed unto to me the rubbish, old broken wals, and trenches of an antient castle, which carried halfe a mile in compasse, & at every tide is compassed for three parts of it with water a great breadth. The Romane Emperors ancient coines now and then there digged up, doe so evidently prove the antiquitie thereof, that if it were not the Castle of old Clausentum, you would judge it to be one of those forts or fences which the romans planted upon the South coast of the Ocean, to represse, as Gildas writeth, the piracies and depredations of the Saxons. When all became wasted, by the Danish warres, old Hanton also was left as a pray in the yeere of our Lord 980. to be sacked and rifled by them: and King William the Conqueror in his time had in it but fourescore men and no more in his demaine. But above 200. yeeres since when Edward the Third King of England and Philip Valois bustled for the very Kingdom of France, it was fired the French and burnt to the ground. Out of the ashes whereof, presently sprung the towne which now is to be seene, but situate in a more commodious place betweene two rivers: for number of houses and those faire built much renowned, for rich inhabitants and concurse of merchants wealthy: fenced round about with a double ditch, strong wals, and turrets standing thicke betweene: and for defence of the Haven a strong Castle it hath of square stone, upon a Mount cast up to a great height, built by King Richard the Second. And afterward King Henrie the Sixt granted to the Maior, Balliues and Burgesses that it should be a Countie by it selfe, with other liberties. Memorable is that of the most puissant Canutus King of England and of Denmarke, by which he in this place repressed a flatterer who bare the King in hand that all things in the Realme were at his wil & command. He commanded (saith Henrie of Huntingdon) that his chaire should be set on the shore, when the sea began to flow. And then in the presence of many, said he to the sea as it flowed. Thou art part of my Dominion, and the ground on which I sit is mine, neither was there ever any that durst disobey my commandement and went away free and unpunished. Wherefore, I charge thee, that come not upon my land, neither that thou wet the clothes or body of thy Lord. But the sea according to his usuall course flowing still without any reverence of his person wet his feet. Then he ritiring backe said. Let all the inhabitants of the world know, that vaine and frivolous is the power of Kings, and that none is worthy then me of King, but hee, to whose command the heaven earth and sea by bond of an everlasting law are subject and obedient, and never after that time set hee the crowne upon his head, &c.

R.Test
Andover
Aetheldred
Danes
Wherwell
Wallop Brook
Brage
Rumsey
Redbridge
R.Alre
Alresford
Of those two rivers, betweene which this South-anton standeth, that in the West now called Test, and in times past Anton, (as I suppose) springeth out of the forrest of Chat goeth first to Andover, which in the Saxon language is [Andeasaran], that is, The Passage or Ferry over And: where in the yeere of our Salvation 893, Aetheldred King of England, when the Danes harried and spoiled his Kingdome on every side, to the end that hee might at length refresh and cherish his weakened and wearied countries with sure and quiet peace, inserted into his owne familie by way of adoption Aulaf the Dane: which notwithstanding soone after tooke small or none effect:
[p.261]
For, this great honor done to the barbarous Dane, could not reclaime and stay his minde, from rapine and spoiling still. From thence it runneth downe and receaveth from the East a brooke passing by Bullingdon, in whose parish is a place called Tibury hill, and containeth a square field by estimation of ten acres ditched about, in some places deeper than other, wherin hath beene found tokens of Wells, and about which the ploughmen have found squared stones, & Romane coines, as they report for the place I have not seene. This brooke entreth into Test neere Worwhell, where Queene Aelfrith built a Monasterie to expiate and make satisfaction for that most foule and hainous fact, wherwith so wickedly she had charged her soule by making away King Edward her husbands sonne: as also to wash out the murdering of her former husband Athelwold a most noble Earle, whom King Edgar trained forth hither a hunting and then strake him throw with a dart, because hee had deluded him in his love secrets, and by deceitfull and naughty meanes prevented him and gotten for himself this same Aelfrith the most beautifull Ladie that was in those daies. After this Test having taken into it a little river from Wallop, or more truly Well-hop, that is, by interpretation out of our forefathers ancient language, A prety well in the side of of an hill, wherof that right worshipfull familie the Wallops of Knights degree dwelling hard by tooke name: seeketh for BRIGE or BRAGE an ancient towne likewise placed by Antonine nine miles from Sorbiodunum: at which distance betweene Salisburie and Winchester he findeth not farre from his banke, Broughton a small countrie towne: which if it were not that BRAGE, I verily beleeve that it was then utterly destroied when William of Normandie laid all even with the ground heere abouts to make that forrest, beforementioned. Then goeth this river to see Rumsey, in Saxon speech [Rumseg]. A nunnery founded by King Edgar, the large Church whereof yet standeth; out of the which Marie daughter of King Stephen being there Abbesse, & his only heire surviving, was conveied secretly by Mathew of Alsace sonne to the Earle of Flaunders, and to him married. But after she had borne to him two daughters, was enforced by sentence of the Church to returne hither again according to her vow. Thence glideeth this water streight into Anton Haven, at Arundinis Vadum, as Bede called it and interpreteth it himselfe Reedeford: but now of the bridge where the foord was named, for Redeford, Redbridge: where, at the first springing up of the English Saxon Church, there flourished a Monasterie, the Abbat whereof Cymbreth as Beda writeth, baptised the two brethren being very little ones of Arvandus the pety King of Wight, even as they were ready to be put to death. For, when Cedwalla the Saxon set upon the Isle of Wight, these small children to save their lives fled to a little towne called Adlapidem, and hid themselves there, untill at length being betraied, they were at Cedwallaes commandement killed. If you aske me, what this litle towne, Adlapidem, should be, I would say it were Stoneham, a small village next to Redebridge, which the very signification of the name may evidently prove for me. The other river that runneth forth at the East-side of Southamton, may seeme to have been called Alre: For, the mercate towne standing upon the banke thereof, not farre from ponds out of which it issueth, is called Alres-ford, that is, The ford of Alre. This towne, (to use the words of an old Record of Winchester): Kinewalce the religious King instructed in the Sacraments of faith by the Bishop Birinus at the very beginning of Christian religion (in this tract,) with great devotion of heart gave unto the Church of God at Wenta. In the yeere of grace 1220. Godfrey Lucy Bishop of Winchester made a new market place heere and called it Novum forum that is, New mercate, in regard haply of old Alres-ford adjoining thereto. But this new name continued not long with the people, who in the matter of speech carrie the greatest strok. Neere heereunto is Tichborn, which I must not omit, for that it hath given name to a worshipfull and ancient familie.

Venta Belgarum
Belgarum
Caer Gwent
Winchester
mastiffs
Upon the West banke of this river is situate the most famous Citie of the British Belgians, called by Ptolomee and Antoninus Venta Belgarum, by the Britans of Wales even at this day, Caer Gwent: by the Saxons in old time Wintanceaster, in Latine commonely Wintonia, and by us in these daies of Winchester. Yet there be
[p.262]
some which affirme this to be Venta Simenorum, & doe grace Bristow, with the name of Venta Belgarum. But that there were never any Simeni at all in this Iland, I will prove when I come to the Iceni. In the meane season, though they should seeke all the townes that Antoninus placeth on every side in the way to or from VENTA, BELGARUM, as narrowly as Emmots paths, yet shall they find nothing for their purpose to make good this their assertion.

The Etymologie of this name Venta, some fetch from Ventus, that is, Wind, others from Vinum, that is, Wine, and some againe from Wina a bishop: who all of them be farre wide, and should doe well to pray for better judgement. Yet like I rather the opinion of Leland: who hath derived it from the British word Guin or Guen, that is, White, so that Caer Guin should signifie as much, as the White Citie. And why not? seeing the old Latines named these their Cities, Alba longa, and Alba regia, of whitenesse: yea and the Grecians alos had their Luca, Lucas, and other nations also many places taking name of whitenesse. For, this Venta, like as the other two of the same name, to wit, VENTA SILURUM, and VENTA ICENORUM, are seated all three in a soile that standeth upon chalke and a whitish clay.

A Citie it was no doubt flourishing even in the Romans times, as in which the Emperours of Rome seeme to have had their sacred house of weaving and enbroidering peculiar to their own persons, and uses: seeing among all the VENTAS in Britaine, it was both the chiefe and also neerest unto Italie. For, in the booke of Notitia, mantion is made of the Procurator [Master or Governour] Cyneij VENTENSIS or BENTENSIS, in Britaine: where the onely flower of Lawyers, James Cuiacius readeth Cynegii and in his Paratitles upon the Code interpreteth it, Sacrum textrinum, that is, The sacred workhouse or shop of embroidering and weaving. And right if his minde is Guidus Pancirolus, who writeth that those Gynaecia were instituted for the weaving of the Princes and souldiers garments of Ship-sailes, of linnen sheets, or coverings and such like cloths, necessarie for the furniture of mansions. But Wolfgangus Lazius was of opinion, that the Procurator aforesaid, had the charge heere of the Emperors dogs. And to say truth, of all the dogs in Europe, ours beare the name; in so much, as Strabo witnesseth, our dogges serve as souldiers, and the ancient Galles made especiall use of them even in their wars. And of all others, they were in most request both for those baitings in the Amphitheaters and also in all other publicke huntings among the Romanes. For, as the same Strabo writeth, they were [ ], that is, of a generous kind and framed naturally for hunting. Whereupon Nemesianus wrote thus:
... divisa Britannia mittit Veloces, nostrique orbis venatibus aptos.

... Though Britaine from this world of ours doth ly secluded farre, Swift hounds it sends which for our game most fitly framed are.

Gratius also, of their price and excellencie, saith thus:
Quod freta si Morinum dubio refluentia ponto Veneris, atque ipsos libeat penetrare Britannos, O quanta est merces, & quantum impendia supra?

If that to Calice-streights you goe, Where tides uncertaine ebbe and flow. And list to venture further more, Crossing the seas to British shore: What meede would come to quite your paines: What overdeale beside, of gaines.

Yea and that very dog with us, which of the old name Agaesus, we calla yet at this day a Gasehound those ancient Greekes both knew and also had in great price. And this will Oppian in his firsts booke of his Cynegeticks tell you, in these Greek verses.
[ ]
[p.263]
Which, Bodine turned into Latine thus:
Est etiam catuli species indagine clara, Corpus huic breve, magnifico sed corpore digna, Picta Britannorum gensillos effera bello Nutrit, Agasaeos[ ] vocat, vilissima forma Corporis, ut credas parasitos esse latrantes.

And may be Englished in this wise,
Stout hounds there [are] and those of Finders kind, Of bodie small but doughtie for their deed: The painted folke, fierce Britans as we find Them Gasehounds call, for they with them doe bred. In making, like house dogs, or at a word, To lickerous curs that craven at our bord.

Claudian also, touching our Mastives writeth in this sort:
Magna[ ] taurorum fracturicolla Britanni.

And British mastives downe that puls, Or breake the necks of sturdy bulls.

I have to[o] far digressed about dogges, yet hope a favorable pardon.

Constans the monk
Stephen
Maud
In this Citie, as our owne Historiagraphers doe report, in the time Romans, was that Constans the Monke, who by his father Constantine was first elected Caesar, and afterwards Augustus: that Constantine I say who upon hope of this name had assumed the Imperiall purple robe that is, usurped the Empire against Honorius. For, long since, (as Zosinus recordeth speaking of those times) as well in villages as in Cities, there were great colledges peopled (as it were) with Monks, who before time flying the light lived scattering heere and there among mountaines, woods and forrests all solitary by themselves whereof also they were so called. Now, of this Colledge wherein the said Constans was, those old broken wals which are seene of that thicknesse and strength, at the West-gate of the Cathedrall church, may seeme to be the ruins and reliques. But this imperiall monke taken out from hence suffered soone after condigne punishment, both for his fathers ambition and also for the contempt of his confessed religion. During the Heptarchie of the Saxons this Citie albeit once or twice it suffered much calamity & miserie, yet it revived and recovered againe: yea and became the seat roiall of the West-Saxons Kings, adorned with magnificent Churches and a Bishops Sea: furnished likewise with six mint houses by King Athelstane. In the Normans time also it flourished very much, and in it was erected an office for keeping of all publicke records and evidences of the realme. In which prosperous estate it.continued a long time: but that once or twice it was defaced by misfortune of suddaine fires, and in the civill war betweene Stephen and Maud about the Kingdome of England, sacked by the unruly and insolent souldiers. Whereupon Necham our countriman who lived in that age, writeth thus:
Guintoniam titulis claram, gazisque repletam Noverunt beterum tempora prisca patr[u]m. Sed tam sacra fames auri, iam caecus habendi, Urbibus egregijs parcere nescit amor.

Our ancestours knew Winchester sometimes a goodly towne, In treasure rich and plentifull, in name, of great renowne. But now, for hunger after gold our men so greedy are; That even such Cities excellent, they know not how to spare.

wool and cloth
But of these losses it recovered itself by the helpe of Edward the third who heere appointed the [mart] for woole and cloth, which we commonly call Staple; What was the [face] and outward [shew] of this Citie in these foregoing times, a man can hardly tell, considering that, as the said Necham writeth:
Flammis totres gens aliena dedit. Hinc facies urbis toties mutata, dolorem Praetendit, cas[ii]s nutia verasui.
[p.264]
So many times a nation strange Hath fir'd this towne, and made such change; That now her face and outward view Her griefe bewray's, and tels full true.

Maud
Stephen
round table
King Arthur
cathedral
In these daies of Ours it is indifferently well peopled and frequented, having water plentie, by reason of the River turned and conveighed divers waies into it, lying somewhat in length from East to West, and containeth about a mile and a halfe in circuit within the wals: which open at six gates, and have every one of them their suburbs reaching forth without, a good way. On the Southside of the West gate there mounteth up an old castle, which often times hath been besieged, but most sore and streightly, above the rest what time as Mawd the Empresse held it against King Stephen, and at length by a rumour given out that she was dead, and causing her selfe to be caried out in a coffin like a coarse deceived the enemy. As concerning that round table there, hanging up against the wall which the common sort useth to gaze upon with great admiration, as if it had been King Arthurs table, I have nothing to say about this, That, as any man which vieweth it well may easily perceive, it is nothing so antient as King Arthur. For, in latter times when for the exercise of armes and feats of warlike prowesse, those runnings at tilt, and martiall justlings or torneaments, were much practised: they used such tables least any contention or offence for prioritie of place should through ambition arise among Nobles and Knights assembled together. And this was a custome of great antiquitie, as it may seeme. For, the antient Gaules, as Athenaeus writeth, were wont to sit about round tables, and their Esquiers stood at their backs, holding their shields. About the mids of the citie, but more inclining to the South, Kenelwalch King of the West-Saxons after the subversion of that Colledge of Monkes which flourished in the Romans time, (as William of Malmesburie saith) First founded to the glorie of God, the faire[st] Church that was in those daies, in which verie place, the posteritie afterwards in building of a Cathedral seat for the Bishop, although it were more stately than the first, yet followed just in the verie same steppes. In this Sea, there have sitten since Wina, whom the said Kenelwalch ordained the first Bishop there, Many Bishops some renowned for their wealth and honourable port, and some for holinesse of life. But among other, Saint Swithin continueth yet of greatest fame, not so much for his sanctitie, as for the raine which usually falleth about the Feast of his translation in July, by reason the Sunne [riseth] then Cosmically with Praesepe and Aselli, noted by antient writers to be rainie constellations, as not for his weeping, or other weeping Saints Margaret the Virgine, and Marie Magdalen, whose feasts are shortly after, as some superstitiously credulous have beleeved.

Bishops of
Winchester
Wickham
This by the way, pardon mee I praie you, for I digresse licentiously. Th[ese] Bishops of Winchester have beene aunciently by a certaine peculiar prerogative that they have, Chancellours to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and for long time now Prelats to the order of the Garter: and they have from time to time to their great cost reedified this church, and by name, Edington and Walkelin, but Wickham especially: who built all the West part there of downe from the quire, after a new kind of worke, I assure you, most sumptuously. In the mids of which building is to bee seene his owne tombe of decent modestie betweene two pillers. And these Bishops have ever and anon consecrated it to new Patrons and Saints, as to Saint Amphibalus, Saint Peter, Saint Swithin, and last of all to the holy Trinitie: by which name it is knowne at this day. The English Saxons also, had this Church in great honour for the sepulture of certaine Saints and Kings there, (whose bones are Richard Fox the Bishop gathered, and shrining them in certaine little gilded coffers placed them orderly with their severall Inscriptions in the top of that wall which encloseth the upper part of the quire) and they called it in times past Ealden Mynsder, that is The old Minster, for difference from another more lately built which was named Net[th]an Mynsder, that is, The new Minster; which Aelfred founded; and for the building of houses of office belonging to the same purchased of the Bishop a plot
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of ground; and for every foote of it paid him downe a marke after the publick weight.

monks
Henrie de Blois
Wolvesley
Winchester
- College
William Wickham
This monasterie as also that other the older, was built for married priests, who afterwards, upon I know not what miracle of a Crosse that spoke, an disliked their mariage, were thrust out by Dunstane Archbishop of Canterbury, and Monkes put in their place. The walls of these two monasteries stood so neere and close together, that the voices of those that sung in the one troubled the chanting of the other: whereupon there arose grudge and heart-burnings betweene these Monks, which afterwards brake out into open enmities: By occasion whereof, and because at this new monasterie there gathered and stood much water which from the Westerne gate came downe thither along the currant of the streets, and cast forth from it an [un]wholesome aire, the Minster Church two hundered yeares after[,] by the crafty practise of Henrie de Blois Bishoppe of Winchester (as the private historie of this place witnesseth) was pitiously burnt. In which fire, that Crosse also was consumed, which Canutus the Dane gave, and upon which, as old writings beare record, he bestowed as much as his owne yeares revenewes of all England came unto. The monasterie neverthelesse was raised up againe and grew by little and little to a wonderfull greatnesse, as the very ruines thereof even at this day doe shew, untill that generall subversion and finall period of <over>[our] monasteries. For then, was this monasterie demolished: and into that other of the holy Trinity, which is the Cathedrall church, when the monkes were thrust out, were brought in their stead, a Deane, twelve Prenbendaries, and there placed. At the East side of this Cathedrall church, standeth the Bishops palace, called Wolvesley: a right goodly thing and sumptuous; which being towred and compassed almosts round with the streame of a prety river, reacheth even to the cittie walls: and in the South-suburbes, just over against it be holdeth a faire Colledge: which William Wickham Bishop of this See, the greatest father and Patron (of all Englishmen) of good literature, and whose praise for ever to the worlds end will continue, built for a schoole, and thereto dedicated it: out of which, both for Church and common welth there riseth a most plentifull encrease of right learned men. For, in this Colledge, one warden, ten fellowes, two schoolemaisters and threescore and ten schoolers, with divers others are plentifully maintained. There have beene also in this cittie, other faire and goodly buildings, (for very many were heere consecrated to religion) which I list not now to recount, since time and avarice hath made an end of them. Onely, that Nunnery, or monasterie of vailed Virgins, which Aelfwid, the wife of King Aelfred founded, I will not overpasse: seeing it was a most famous thing as the remainder of it now doth shew: and for that, out of it King Henrie the first tooke to wife Mawde the daughter of Malcolne King of Scots, by whom the royall bloud of the auncient Kings of England became united to the Normans, and hee thereby wonne much love of the English nation. For, nephew [neice] she was in the second degree of descent, unto King Edmond Ironside, by his sonne Edward the Banished. A woman, as adorned with all other vertues meet for a Queene, so especially inflamed with an incredible love of true piety and godlinesse. Whereupon was this Tetrastitch made in her commendation,
Prospera non laetam fecere, nec aspera tristem:
Aspera risus ei, prospera terror erant.
Non decor effecit fragilem, non sceptra superbam,
Sola potens humilis, sola pudica decens.

No prosp'rous state did make her glad,
Nor adverse chances made her sad:
If fortune frown'd, she then did smile;
If fortune frown'd, she feard the while.
If beauty tempted, she yet said nay,
No pride she tooke in scepters sway:
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Shee onely high, herself debas't,
A lady onely faire and chast.

Hospital of
- St Cross
Henry de Blois
Cardinal Beaufort
Concerning Sir Guy of Warwick, of whom there goe so many prety tales, who in single fight overcame here that Danish giant and Golias, Colbrand: and of Waltheof Earle of Huntingdon, that was here beheaded, where afterwards stood Saint Giles chapell: as also of that excellent Hospital of Saint Crosse there adjoyning, founded by Henrie of Blois brother to King Stephen and Bishop of this City, and augmented by Henrie Beaufort Cardinall, I neede not to speake: seeing every man may read of them in the common Chronicles.

Earl of Winchester
Quincy
As touching the Earles of Winchester, to say nothing of Clyto the Saxon whom the Normans deprived of his auncient honour King John created Saier Quincy, Earle of Winchester, who used for his armes a militare belt, they call it a Fesse, with a labell of seaven as I have seene upon his seales. After him succeeded Roger his sonne, who bare, Gueules seaven Mascles voided, Or: but with him that honour vanished and went away, seeing hee died without issew male. For, hee married the eldest daughter and one of the coheires of Alan Lord of Galloway in Scotland by a former wife, in right of whom hee was Constable of Scotland. Hee had by her three onely daughters, the first married to William de Ferrarijs Earle of Derbie, the second to Alan de la Zouch, the third to Comine Earle of Bucqhanan in Scotland. A long time after Hugh le Dispencer, having that title bestowed upon him for terme of his life, by King Edward the second whose minion he was and onely beloved, fel[t], together with his sonne, what is the consequence of Princes extraordinary favours: For both of them envied by most were by the furious rage of the people put cruelly to shamefull death. And long it was after this, that through the bounty of King Edward the fourth, Lewis of Bruges a Netherlander Lord of Gruthuse, Prince of Steinhuse &c. Who had given him comfort and succour in the Netherlands, when hee was fled his native country, received his honour with Armes resembling those of Roger Quincy in these words Azur a dix Mascles D'or en orme d'un Canton de nostre propre Armes d'Engleterre, cest savour, de Goul un Leopard passant d'or, armee d'azur.

Paulet
St John
Marquess of
Winchester
latitude
longitude
All which, after King Edwards death, hee yeelded up into the hands of Henrie the seaventh. But lately within our memorie King Edward the sixth, honoured Sir William Powlet Lord Treasurer of England, Earle of Wilshire, and Lord Saint John of Basing, with a new title of Marquesse of Winchester. A man prudently pliable to [the] times, raised not sodainly but by degrees in Court, excessive in vast informous buildings; temperat in all other things, full of yeares for he lived ninetie seaven years and fruitfull in his generation, for hee saw one hundred and three issued from him by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Sir William Capell Knight. And now his grand-child William enjoieth the said honours: For the Geographicall position of Winchester, it hath beene observed by former ages to bee in longitude two and twenty degrees and latitude fiftie one.

Hamble R
The Solent
tides
Waltham Forest
Forest of Beere
Tichfield
Wriotheosley
Earl of
Southampton
From Winchester more Eastward the river Hamble at a great mouth emptieth it selfe into the Ocean. Beda calleth it Homelea, which, as he writeth, by the lands of the Intae entreth into Solente: for so termeth he that frith our narrow sea, that runneth between the Isle of Wight & the maine land of Britaine: in which the tides at set houres rushing in with great violence out of the Ocean at both ends, and so meeting one another in the mids, seemed so strange a matter to our men in old time, that they reckoned it among the wonders of Britaine. Whereof, read heere the very words of Beda. The two tides of the Ocean which about Britaine breake out of the vast Northen Ocean daily encounter and fight one against another, beyond the mouth of the river Homelea: and when they have ended their conflict, returne back, from whence they came and run into the Oceane. Into this Frith that little river also sheadeth it selfe, which having his head neere Warnford, passeth betweene the Forrests of Waltham (where the Bishop of Winchester hath a goodly house), and of Beere, wherby is Wickham a mansion of that auncient familie of Vuedal and then by Tichfield, sometime a little monastrie founded by Petre de Rupibus Bishop of Winchester where the mar-
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riage was solemnized betweene King Henrie the sixth, and Margaret of Anjou; and now the principall seat of the Lord Writheosleies Earle of South-hamton.

Portsea Island
Portchester
Portus Magnus
Portsmouth
Gods House
Henry VII
Elizabeth
fortifications
Ports bridge
Havant
salt
From [t]hence forthwith, the shore with curving crookes draweth itselfe in, and the Island named Portesey maketh a great creeke, within the more inward nooke or corner whereof sometimes flourished Port-peris; (where, by report Vespasian landed) An haven towne which our auncestours by a new name called Port-chester, not of Porto the Saxon, but of the port or haven. For, Ptolomee tearmeth it [ ], that is THE GREAT HAVEN, for the widenesse of it, like as that Portus Magnus also in Africk, as Plinie witnesseth. And verily there remaineth yet a great Castell which hath a faire and spatious prospect into the haven underneath. But when as the Ocean by with-drawing it selfe, tooke away, by little and little the commodity of the haven, the inhabitants flitted from thence into the Island Portsey adjoining, which taketh in circuit much about foureteene miles, beeing at every full sea floated round about with salt waters, out of which they boile salt, and by a bridge that hath a fortresse adjoining unto it, is united to the Continent. This Island Athelflede King Eadgars wife had given to the New monasterie of Winchester. And in it at the very gullet, or mouth where the sea entreth in, our fore-fathers built a towne and thereupon named it Portsmouth, that is, the mouth of the haven. A place alwaies in time of warre well frequented, otherwise little resort there is to it: as beeing more favourable and better effected to Mars and Neptune, than to Mercurie, that is to warre rather than to Traffique. A Church it hath of the old building, and an Hospitall (Gods house they call it) founded by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester. Fortified it is with a wall made of timber and the same well covered over with thicke bankes of earth: fenced with a platforme also or mount of earth in times past on the North-east, nere to the gate: and two block-houses at the entry of the haven made of new heawen stone: Which being by King Edward the fourth begunne, King Henrie the seaventh as the Inhabitants report did finish, and strengthened the towne with a garrison. But in our rememberance, Queene ELIZABETH at her great cost and charges so armed it (as one would say) with new fortifications, as that now there is nothing wanting, that a man would require in a most strong and fenced place. And of the garrison-soldiors some keepe watch and ward both night and day at the gates: others upon the towre of the church, who by the ringing or sound of a bell give warning how many horse or foote are comming, and by putting forth a banner shewe from what quarter they come. From hence as the shoare fetcheth a compasse and windeth from Portes-bridge, wee had the sight of Havant a little mercate towne, and hard by it, of Warblington, a goodly faire house belonging some-times to the Earles of Salisbury, but now to the family of the Cottons Knights. Before which, there lie two Islands, the one greater named Haling, the other lesse, called Thorney, of thornes there growing: and both of them have their severall parish church. In many places along this shore, of the sea waters flowing up thither, is made salt of a palish or greene collour: the which by a certaine artificious devise, they boile untill it bee exceeding white. And of this sea or Bay-salt, and not of ours made out of salt springs, is Saint Ambrose to bee understood, when hee writeth thus; Consider wee those things which are usuall with many very grace-full: namely, how water is turned into salt, of such hardnesse and solidity, that often-times it is hewed with axes. This in the salts of Britaine is no wonder, as which carrying a shewe of strong marble, doe shine and glitter againe with the whitenesse of the same mettall, like unto snow, and bee holesome to the bodie &c.

Meanuari
Mansborough
Eastmeon
Westmeon
Old Winchester
- Hill
Segontiaci
Holdshott
Alton
Basingstoke
Basing
Holy Ghost chapel
Lord Sands
Poyning
Paulet
St John
Farther within the land, the MEANUARI dwelt, whose country togither with the Isle of Wight Edilwalch King of the South Saxons received in token of Adoption from Wlpher King of Mercians, godfather unto him at the Font, when hee was baptised. The habitations of these Meanuari, scarse changing the name, at this day is divided into three hundereds; to wit, Means-borow, East-mean, and Weastmean: and amongst them there mounteth up a high Hill, invironed in the top with a large
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rampier, and they call it old Winchester: at which, by report, there stood in old time a cittie, but now neither top nor toe, as they say remaineth of it: so as a man would quickly judge it to have beene a summer standing campe and nothing els. Under this is Warnford seated where Adam de Portu a mighty man, in this tract and of great wealth in the reigne of William the first, reedified the church a new, as a couple of rude verses set fast upon the wall doe plainly shew. Upon these, more high into the land, those SEGONTIACI, who yeelded themselves unto Julius Caesar, had there[their] seat toward the North limite of this shire, in and about the hundred of Holeshot: wherein are to bee seene Mercate Aultun, which King Aelfred bequeathed by his will unto the keeper of Leodre: also Basingstoke a mercate towne well frequented: upon the descent of an hil, on the North side wherof standeth solitarie a very faire chapell consecrated unto the holy Ghost by William, the first Lord Sandes, who was buried there. In the arched and embowed rooffe whereof is to bee seene the holy historie of the Bible painted most artificially, with lively portraicts and images representing the Prophets, the Apostles, and the Disciples of Christ. Beneath this, Eastward lieth Basing, a towne very well knowne, by reason of the Lords bearing the name of it, to wit, Saint John, the Poinings and the Powlets. For, when Adam de Portu, Lord of Basing matched in marriage with the daughter and heire of Roger de Aurevall, whose wife was likewise daughter and heire to the right noble house of Saint John, William his sonne, to doe honour unto that familie assumed to him the surname of Saint John, and they who lineally descended from him have still reteined the same. But when Edmond Saint John departed out of this world without issue in King Edward the third his time, his sister Margaret bettered the state of her husband John, Saint Philibert, with the possessions of the Lord Saint John: And when shee was dead without children Isabell the other sister wife unto Sir Luke Poynings, bare unto him Thomas, Lord of Basing, whose Neice Constance by his sonne Hugh, (unto whom this fell for her childs part of inheritance) was wedded into the familie of the Powlets, from her descended that Sir William Powlet who being made Baron. Saint John of Basing by King Henrie the Eighth, and created by King Edward the Sixth first Earle of Wilshire, and afterward Marquesse of Winchester, and withall was Lord Treasurer of England, having in a troublesome time runne through the highest honours, fulfilled the course of nature with the satietie of this life, and that in great prosperity, (a rare blessing among Courteours) after he had built a most sumptuous house heere, for the spacious largenesse thereof admirable to the beholders, untill for the great and chargeable reparations his successors pulled downe a good part of it. But of him I have spoken before.

The Vine
vines
Odiam
Neere unto this house, the Vine sheweth it selfe, a verie faire place, and Mansion House of the Baron Sands, so named of the vines there, which wee have had in Britaine, since Probus the Emperours time, rather for shade than fruit. For, hee permitted the Britains and others to have vines. The first of these Barons was Sir William Sands, whom King Henrie Eight advanced to that dignitie, being Lord Chamberlaine unto him, & having much amended his estate by marrying Margerie Braie, daughter and heire of John Bray, and cousin to Sir Reinold Bray, a most worthy Knight of the Order of the Garter, and a right noble Baneret: whose Sonne Thomas Lord Sands, was Grandfather to William L. Sands that now liveth. Neighbouring hereunto is Odiam glorious in these daies for the Kings house there: and famous for that David the Second King of Scots, was there imprisoned: a burrough corporate, belonging in times past to the Bishop of Winchester: the fortresse whereof in the name of King John thirteene Englishmen for fifteene daies defended most valiantly, and made good against Lewis of France, who with his whole armie besieged and assaulted it verie hotely.

Segontiaci
Vindonum
Silchester
roman road
A little above, among these Segontiaci, towards the North side of the country, somtimes stood VINDONUM, the chiefe citie of the Segontiaci, which casting off his own name, hath taken the name of the Nation, like as Lutetia hath assumed unto it the
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name of the Parisians there inhabiting: for, called it was by the Britans Caer Segonte, that is to say, the Citie of the Segontiaci. And so Ninnius in his catalogue of cities named it: wee at this day called Silcester: and Higden seemeth to clepe it of the Britans Britenden: but this was the antient Vindonum, I am induced to thinke by reason of the distance of Vindonum in Antoninus, from Gallena or Guallenford, and Venta or Winchester: and the rather because between this Vindonum and Venta, there is still to bee seene a causey, or street-way. Ninnius recordeth, that it was built by Constantius the sonne of Constantine the Great, and called sometime Murimintum, happly, for Muri-vindum, that is the wals of Vindon. For, this word Mur borrowed from the provinciall language, the Britans retained still, and V. the consonant, they change oftentimes in their speech and writing in M. And to use the veri words [o]f Afinnius, though they seeme ridiculous, the said Constantius, sowed upon the soile of this citie three seedes, that none should be poore that dwelt therein at any time. Like as Dinocrates, when Alexandria in AEgypt was a building, strewed it with meale or flower (as Marcellinus writeth) al the circular lines of the dr[a]ught, which being done by chance, was taken for a fore-token, that the citie should abound with al maner of victuails. He reporteth also, that Constantius died here, and that his Sepulcher was to bee seene at one of the gates, as the inscription sheweth. But in these matters let Ninnius cleere his owne credit; for, stuffed hee hath that little booke with many a pretty lie. Yet this I may be bold to affirme, that it flourished in great honour about that time; and I my selfe have lighted here upon verie many peeces, of the coine of Constantine, the younger sonne to Constantine the Great: which in their reverse have the portraict of an house with this inscription PROVIDENTIA CAES. Now that this Constantius whom he maketh the builder of this citie, died at Mopsuestia in Cilicia, and was interred in Constantinople in the Sepulcher of his Ancestours, it is knowen for certaine and confessed. Yet I will not denie, but that he might have in this citie a monumnent erected in honour and remembrance of him. For, many there were that had such monuments built, about which the souldiers, werre wont yeerely to just, and keepe solemne turneaments in honour of the dead.

Roman Empire
When the declining Romane Empire hastened to an end, and barbarous nations began everie where to waste and spoile the Provinces: their armies heere in Britaine, fearing least the flame of this fire, wherewith their next neighbours in France, were consumed, would catch hold of them, set up and created Emperours to themselves: first Marcus, then Gratian, whom they soone slew: and last of all in the yeare after Christs birth 407, our Constantine for his names sake, they forced wild he, nild he, to usurpe the Empire, & to put on the imperiall purple robe in citie Caer Segont, as both Ninnius and Gervais of Canterburie, doe witnesse. This Constantine putting to sea out of Britaine, landed at Bologne in France and drew all the Romane armies, even as farre as the Alpes to side and joine with him in his warres. Hee stoutly defended the Valentia in France, against the power of Honorius the Emperour: the River Rhene which long before had beene neglected, he fortified with a garrison. Upon the Alpes, where any passage was, hee built fortresses. In Spaine, under the conduct of his sonne Constans, whom of a Monke he had declared Emperour, he warred fortunately: and afterwards having sent his letters unto Honorius, and craved pardon for suffering the souldiours: to put upon him the purple perforce, whether hee would or no; he accepted at his hands the imperiall investure, which he freely gave him. Whereupon being puffed up with pride, after hee had passed the Alpes, his mind was wholy set upon a journey Rome. but hearing that Alarichus the Gothe who had favoured his part was dead, hee returned to Arles, where hee settled his imperiall seat, casued the citie to bee called Constantina, and commanded the courts and assemblies of seven Provinces, there to be holden. In the meane time Gerontius excited the soldiers against their Lord, and when he had treacherously slaine his sonne Constans at Vienna in France, besieged Constantine also himselfe within Arles. But after that one Constantius sent by Honorius with a great armie, made head against him, Gerontius killed himselfe. And Constantine being now streit-
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ly besieged, and by reason of the unhappie successe of his men past all hope, laid aside the purple and his great estate entred into the Church, became a Priest: and streight-waies when Arles was yeelded up, and he carried into Italie, was himselfe, together with his Sonne Julian (unto whom he had given the title of Nobilissimus) and his brother Sebastian, beheaded. Thus much briefly of these occurrents, (which before are discoursed more at large) out of Zosimus, Zosomenus, Nicephorus, Orosius, and Olympiodorus, to the end that Veritie may triumph over their vanitie, who have besprinkled this storie with most ridiculous and foolish lies of their owne devising.

King Arthur
Danes
Silchester
Onions pennies
crop marks
Moreover in this citie (our Historiographers write) that our warlike Arthur was invested and crowned King. But not long after it was rased quite, either in the Saxons warres, or when Adelwolph being offended with his brother King Edward, upon a malicious mind, together with the helpe of the Danish rovers, wasted this countrey even to Basing-stoke. And now remaineth nothing save the wals, which although they want their battlements, curtain, and coppe, yet they seeme to have been of a verie great height. For, the earth is so growne up with the rubble, that I could scarse with stouping low passe through an old posterne, which they call Onions Hole. These walles in some sort continue whole, but that they bee broken through in those places where the gates were: and out of the verie walles I saw grow oakes of that bignesse, and those seeming (as it were) bredde with the verie stones, with such huge roots clasping one another a great way, and spreading forth so mightie armes and boughes all abroad, that it would make the beholders to wonder thereat. These walles take in compasse about two Italian miles. Whereupon haply the Saxons called this citie Selcester, as one would say, The great citie: for Sel may seeme to sound with them as much as Great, seeing Asserius hath interpreted the Saxon word, Selwood, The Great wood. And before the wals westward, where is a plaine, there lieth a banke of great length, raised and cast up for a defence and fortification. The sight of this old citie, containeth about fourscore acres of ground within, which being a soile ploughed up and tilled, are divided into corne-fields; with a little grove in the West-side: but on the East, neere unto the gappe in the wall, there standeth a Farme-house, and a pretty Church more lately built, in which, while I searched for ancient inscriptions, I found nothing, but onely in the windowes certaine armes, to wit, In a field sable, seven Fusils argent in Bend, likewise in a shield sables, a Fesse between two Cheverns, and in an Escutcheon, or[,] an Eagle displaied with two heads, gules. This last, I have heard say, was the coat of the Blewets, unto whom this land came, about the Conquerours time. The second belonged unto the ancient house of the Bainards of Leckham: but the first to the Cusanz, by whom from the Blewets it descended hereditarily, to the said Bainards. But in the raigne of William the Conquerour, it was the possession of William de Ow, a Norman, who being accused of high treason, and desirous to prove his inocencie by combat was overcome in fight, and by commandement of King William Rufus, had his two eies pluckt out of his head, and lost both his genetours. This is found by continuall observation (as I have learned of the inhabitants of this place) that although the ground bee fertile and fruitfull inough, yet in certaine places crossing one another, the corne doth not thrive so well, but commeth up much thinner then else where, by which they suppose the streets of the citie went in old time. There are heere daily digged up, bricks such as we call Britaine-bricks, and great store of Romane coine which they terme Onions pennies. For, they dreame that this Onion was a Giant, and dwelt in this citie. There are digged up also many times inscriptions, of which the unskilfull rurall people envie us the having. Onely one was brought from hence to London, which was to bee seene in the gardens of the right honourable Sir William Cecill, Lord Burghley, and high Treasurer of England, to wit.
[p.272]
MEMORIAE FL. VICTORI- N AE. T. TAM: VICTOR CONIUX POSUIT.

That this Tombe was erected for that Victorina which was called Mater Castrorum, that is, The mother of the campe, and who against Gallienus Emperour, excited in Gaule and Britaine, the two Victorini, her sonne, and sonnes sonne, Posthumus likewise, Lollianus, Marius, and Tetricus Caesars, I would not with others affirme. Yet I have read, that two of the VICTORS, were in some place here in Britaine, and those at one and the selfe-same time, the one Maximus the Emperour his sonne, the other Praefectus Protorio to the same Emperour, of whom Saint Ambrose maketh mention in his Epistles, but I dare avouch, that neither of these twaine reared this monument for his wife.

roman roads
Pamber Forest
Chute Forest
As one highway or street of the Romans went straight from hence southward to Winchester, so there was another ran west-ward through Pamber forrest, very full of trees, and other by-places now standing out of the way, hard by Litchfield, that is, the field of dead bodies, to the Forrest of Chute pleasant for coole shade of trees, & plentifull game: in which the Hunters and Forresters themselves do wonder at the bank or ridge thereof, so evident to be seene, paved with stone, but broken here and there.

Kingsclere
Freemantle Park
Sidmonton
Burghclere
hillfort
beacons
More toward the North, in the verie edge and frontier of this Shire, we saw Kings-Cleare, a market towne in these daies well frequented, the residence in times past of the Saxon Kings, by it Fremantle in a parke where King John much haunted, also Sidmanton, the habitation of the Kingsmils, Knights: and Burgh-Cleare situate under an high hill, in the top whereof a warlike rampire (such as our countreymen call a Burgh) hath a trench taking a great compasse about it: from whence, there being a faire and open prospect every way over the country lying underneath, there standeth a Beacon, that by light burning fire the enemies comming, may bee shewed to all the neighbour-inhabitants round about. And verily such watches or signals as this, we terme in common speech Beacons, of the old word Beacnian, that is, to shew by a signe, and for these many hundred yeeres, they have been in right great request, and much used among us: in some places, by heaping up a deale of wood, in others by barrels full of pitch fastened to the top of a mast or pole in the highest places of the countrey, at which, by night some doe ever more watch: and in old time, there were set horsemen as posts in many places, whom our Ancestors called Hobelers, who in the day time should give notice of the enemies approch.

This shire, like as the rest which hitherto we have run over, belonged to the west-Saxon Kings: and when they had deposed Sigebert from his Kingdome, for his tyrannie, evill intreating and lewd managing of his province, this countrey, as Marianus writeth, was assigned unto him least hee should seeme altogether a private person. Whom notwithstanding afterward, for his wicked deeds, they likewise expelled from hence: and so far was it off, that this afflicted state of a King moved any man to take pitie of him, that a Swineheard in the end, slew him in the wood Anderida, where he had lurked and hidden himselfe.

Bogo
Wriotheosley
This Shire can reckon but verie few Earles, besides those of Winchester which I have alreadie named. In the first time of the Normans, Bogo or Beavose the English man, who fought against the Normans in the battell at Cardiff in Wales, is reputed to have been Earle of South-hampton, a man for warlike prowesse much renowned, whom whiles the Monks laboured to set out with their fained fables, they have obscured his doughtie deeds in greater darknes. From which time unto the daies of K. Henrie the Eight, there was no Earle of South-hampton that I read of: but he created
[p.273]
William Fitzwilliams descended from the daughter of Marquesse Montacute, both Earle of Southhamton, and also Admiral of England, when he was now well stricken in yeeres. Who dying streight after without issue; King Edward the Sixth, in the first yeere of his reigne conferred the said honor upon Thomas Wriotheosley Lord Chanceller, whose grand-child Henrie by his sonne Henrie, enjoieth the same at this day: and in the prime and flowre of his age hath by good literature and militarie experience strengthend his honorable parentage, that in riper yeeres he might be more serviceable to his Prince and country.

There be found in this shire Parishes 253. and mercate townes 18.



Index

Aetheldred
Alaun mouth
Alre, River
Alresford
Alton
Andover
Anton Bay
Avon, River

Basing
Basingstoke
beacons
Beaulieu tract
Belgae
Bishops of Winchester
Bogo
Brage
Burghclere

Caer Gwent
Calshot Castle
Canute
Cardinal Beaufort
Charford
Christchurch
Chute Forest
Clausentum
commodities
Constans the monk
crop marks

Danes
Danes

Earl of Southampton
Earl of Winchester
Eastmeon
Elizabeth

Forest of Beere
fortifications
Freemantle Park

Gods House

Hamble River
Hamon
Hantshire
Havant
Henry VII
Henry de Blois
Henry de Blois
Henry VIII
hillfort
Holdshott
Holy Ghost chapel
Hospital of St Cross
Hurst Castle

King Arthur
King Arthur
Kingsclere

latitude
longitude
Lord Sands

Mansborough
Marquess of Winchester
mastiffs
Maud
Maud
Meanuari
monks

Natanleod
Netley Castle
New Forest

Odiam
Old Winchester Hill
Onions pennies

Pamber Forest
Paulet
Paulet
Portchester
Ports bridge
Portsea Island
Portsmouth
Portus Magnus
Poyning

Quincy

Redbridge
Regni
Regnum
Ringwood
roman roads
roman roads
Roman Empire
Romsey
round table

salt
sanctuary
sea coast
Segontiaci
Segontiaci
Sidmonton
Silchester
Silchester
Solent, The
Southampton
Southampton Haven
St John
St John
St Andrew's Castle
Stephen
Stephen
Stour, River

Test, River
Test, River
Tichfield
tides
Twinamburne

Venta Belgarum
Vespasian
Vindonum
vines
Vyne, The

Wallop Brook
Waltham Forest
Westmeon
Wherwell
Wickham, William
William I
William Rufus
Winchester Cathedral
Winchester College
Winchester
Wolvesley
wool and cloth
Wriotheosley
Wriotheosley




Camden's
Britannia

William Camden was born 1551. He was educated at St Paul's School and Magdalen College, and became headmaster of Westminster School. His comprehensive history 'Britannia', its text in Latin, was published 1586. The description of Great Britain was translated into English, and edited, and improved, and published many times. William Camden died 1623.
1607 The 1607 edition is the 6th, still in latin, much emlarged; the first which has county maps.
Britannia, / sive / florentissimorum / Regnorum Angliae, / Scotiae, Hiberniae, et / Insularum adiacentium ex intima antiquitate / Chorographica descriptio: / Nunc postremo recognita, plurimis locis magna accessione / adaucta, & Chartis Chorographicis / illustrata. / Gulielmo Camdemo Authore. / Londini, / Impensis Georgii Bishop & / Ionnis Norton. / M.D.CVII.

The preface notes that maps by Saxton and Norden are included:-
..., illae additae ex Christophori Saxtoni & Ianne Noredni Chorographorum peritissimorum descriptionibus
41 of the maps are by Saxton; 6 are by John Norden, including the map of Hampshire: Hamshire. Io: Norden descripsit. W. Hole sculp. This has text pages 187/188 on the reverse.

The maps were reprinted in the English editions of Britannia, 1610 and 1637.
1610 The 1610 edition is the first English translation, by Philemon Holland (b.1552 d.1637). The maps are from the same plates as the 1607 edition, but have no text on the reverse. Before the 1622 edition plate numbers were added to the maps.
Britain, / Or / A Chorographicall / Description of the most / flourishing Kingdomes, England, / Scotalnd, and Ireland, and the / Ilands adioyning, out of the depth of / Antiquitie: / Beautified with mappes of the / severall Shires of England: / Written first in Latine by William Camden / ... / Translated newly into English by Philemon Holland / ... / Finally, revised, amended, and enlarged with sundry / Additions by the said Author. / ... / Londini, Impensis Georgii Bishop & Ioannis Norton. M.DC.X.
1695 A new translation was made 1695, with more editorial comments and additions, published by Edmund Gibson (1669-1748).
Camden's / Britannia, / Newly Translated into English: / with large / Additions / and / Improvements. / Publish'd by Edmund Gibson, of / Queens-College in Oxford. / ... / London, / Printed by F. Collins, for A. Swalle, at the Unicorn at the West-end / of St. Paul's Church-yard; and A. & J. Churchill, at the Black / Swan in Paternoster -row. 1695.
A preliminary page has a portait of William Camden engraved by R White.

The plan of the new translation, involving several translators, has Holland's insertions of the 1610 edition removed to footnotes keyed by numbers to the main text, and has Gibson's comments and additions at the end of each county, keyed by letter to the main text. Gibson's editorial additions include information which:-
Several Gentlemen return'd out of most Counties (either upon a general notice of the Design, or in answer to some particular Queries)
Although planned for about 1692 the book was delayed, and was eventually published in 1695. This included maps of a larger size then first proposed.
THE Maps mentioned in the former Proposals (though they were Design'd according to the newest Surveys very Correct, and contained all the Towns that were mentioned in Cambden's yet) were not thought Large and Comprehensive enough, by some Judicious and Ingenious Gentlemen that assist in the Work, Who think it proper and Necessary to have the Maps of every County full as Large as this Sheet will admit, and to Comprehend every Town, Village, &c. throughout.
The Undertakers therefore to Comply with these and many other Gentlemens Desires, have Resolved to have the Maps so done; with all the Roads, and the Degrees of Longitude and Latitude, and other considerable Additions and Corrections never done before. Though the Expence will be at least 500l. Extraordinary.
Besides which, many Additions will be made to the Book more than were mentioned; particularly a curious Collection of all the Publick Coins of England, supplying what are wanting in Mr. Cambden's of the Britains and Romans, and adding those of the Saxons, Danes, &c. which will be done by an Eminent Hand. And all the Coins fairly Engraved on Copper.
And for these Reasons we are obliged to raise the Price to Thirty Two Shillings, which cannot be esteemed Dear, considering the great Charge extraordinary, in Graving the Map so Large, and the excessive Price of Paper at this time, the Maps alone being worth the Money.
It is believed that Morden's smaller maps were only about 16.5x20.5cm. The Hampshire sheet of this small series was engraved by Sutton Nicholls, and has a three 10 mile scale lines. They were published by Morden in The New Description and State of England, 1701.

The larger maps used for the 1695 edition were based on earlier mapping, with corrections invited from local knowledge. The Hampshire sheet, Hampshire by Robt. Morden., is based on John Norden's map of a century earlier. It does not mention engraver or booksellers at its foot; there is little decoration, just the shell style title cartouche with title and map maker's name.

According to Dr Harley:-
the process of revising ... place names to accord with contemporary usage had begun .... Quite a number of our present-day parish and township names were first 'modernized' on a printed map due to the efforts of Gibson and Morden, though in some cases thay had done no more than to restore Saxton's names which Speed had abandoned.
Gibson expressed concern about place names and other mapping problems in his preface. The maps got some criticism fairly promptly. Rev Francis Brokesby, 16 May 1711:-
... the Unaccurateness of the Maps, even when they are copied from such as were made with great Exactness, as in that of Stafford-shire ...
He observed:-
Errors in other Maps, when I consulted them about Places I travell'd in ...
The 1695 edition has been published in facsimile:-
  • : 1951: Camden's Britannia 1695: David and Charles (Newton Abbot, Devon):: ISBN 0 7153 5101 X
1722 The description of Great Britain was translated into English, and edited, and improved, and published many times. One more, typical, edition, 1722, had a title page:-
BRITANNIA / OR, A / Chorographical Description / OF / GREAT BRITAIN / AND / IRELAND, / TOGETHER WITH THE / ADJACENT ISLANDS. / Written in LATIN / By WILLIAM CAMDEN, / Clarenceux King at Arms; / And translated into ENGLISH, with / ADDITIONS and IMPROVEMENTS; / By EDMUND GIBSON, D.D. / Late Lord BISHOP of LONDON. / This FOURTH EDITION is printed from a Copy of 1722, left corrected by the BISHOP for the Press. / M.DCC.LXXII.
1789 Another tranlsation was made by Richard Gough (1735-1809) published in 1789. This edition has maps by John Cary.

The 1722 edition of Britannia has an engraving of William Camden by R White.
The 1722 edition used the 'smaller' county maps by Robert Morden.


References
A summary of these important editions is as follows:-


Camden, William: 1586 & 1607 (6th edn): Britannia (Latin): (London)

Camden, William & Holland, Philemon (translator): 1610: Britannia (English): Bishop, George & Norton, John (London)

Camden, William & Gibson, Edmund (translator): 1695: Britannia (English): Swalle, A & Churchill, A and J (London)

Camden, William & Gough, Richard (translator): 1789: Britannia (English): (London)



Camden's Britannia 1607
Norden's Hampshire 1607
Old Hampshire Mapped

Text HMCMS:FA1998.24
 ©  Martin and Jean Norgate: 2003
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