Old Hampshire Mapped
Diagrams have been drawn of the roads shown on some of the
county maps of Hampshire; others are constructed from road
strip maps, or extracted from general maps of England. A
few sources outside the Map Collection have also been
included. They are presented here, all in one style, as an
aid for you to make comparisons between the choice of routes
made by different map makers at different times. Places are
positioned correctly. The roads are drawn as curves between
places, indicating the approximate route. The county boundary
shown is approximately the one in use around 1700. The diagrams
are drawn in two sizes: the smaller is shown first with
limited place names to orientate you within the county;
the larger version shows a greater selection of places
through which routes pass.|
The larger diagrams show the further destinations where these
from Cowley's map of Hampshire, 1744.
Most maps indicate roads with a double line. Some
distinguish minor roads by using a single line. A few
makers use a thicker stroke on one of the double lines
for really important roads, as in Kitchin's map of Hampshire,
Cary's map of England and Wales, 1815, uses a fringed double line:-
Where routes have been graded for size or importance by the mapmaker, this is shown by line thickness on the diagram.
It is necessary to bear in mind the difference between a
route, which goes from one place to another somehow, and
the actual road used on the journey. But we have not
attempted to define the difference formally. On a map it
depends on the scale, and on how many places are marked on
the roads. On the ground there would be problems of
definition too, for example with the changing line of an
unfenced and unpaved road over downland.|
The roads on Morden's Hampshire, 1690s, seem to have been added late in the process of engraving, after the words, and separately from the bridges.
On many maps the roads appear to have been drawn quite casually, perhaps indicating the existence of a route between towns rather than trying to show the road precisely. This is in fact the technique that has emerged as the most practical in constructing these diagrams!
Roads on smaller scale maps are usually less carefully drawn and show the road passing through fewer places. Roads included on county maps or strip maps may be missing from the corresponding general map of the country; the general map may include roads which are not on the county or strip maps.
On several small county maps, the map maker has placed settlements so inaccurately that the road's relationship to them is wrong, as in this example from Kitchin's county map of 1751:-
The road west from Basingstoke should go through Dean, keep well south of Hannington and just south of Overton and the river Tees. The road south-west from Basingstoke should go the other side of Stephenton.
A dotted line has been used on our route diagrams where we think the map maker has deviated significantly from his intended road, or where there is incorrect positioning of settlements relative to a road.
John Ogilby's strip map, plate 25, of 1675 leaves Whitchurch and skirts south of Hurstbourne Park to pass through the village of Hurstbourne Priors, where he crosses the Bourne Rivulet on the way to Andover. He calls the village Down Hursboorn; elsewhere it is recorded as Nether Hurstbourne, Down Husband, etc.
Robert Morden, in his 1690s county map, drew the road out from Whitchurch rather too straight, missing the village of Husborn.
The straight road on Robert Morden's smaller map of 1701 has been amended in 1708 by Herman Moll to pass through Husborn; now two roads show where there should only be one.
Thomas Kitchin, in 1751, shows Husborn Pri. by the Bourne Rivulet, with D. Husborn as a separate place on his straight road.
John Harrison, in 1788, shows Husborn Prior and Down Husborn as separate places, each with its own road.
The earliest printed maps of Hampshire, by Saxton, Norden,
Speed, etc, showed no roads. This is despite the fact
that Saxton's map was clearly a government map, a royal
funded project, which had a real interest in communications,
and it showed a significant number of bridges.
Communications affect the security of the state; the ability
to receive information centrally, the ability to deploy
forces under central control. Major routes were
already established at the time these maps were made, the
late 16th and early 17th century, and some routes were
probably established long before. Customary posts were
inns, between 10 and 20 miles apart, either on or near the
road, where fresh mounts could be obtained; and various
letter systems were in operation. In particular,
during Elizabethan times there were exchequer funded stages
in Hampshire on the important routes from London:-
We can only speculate on the reasons for the absence of roads from early maps. John Ogilby, in his preface to Britannia, 1675, berates his predecessors for not surveying the roads properly. Why was this not done whilst surveying other landscape features so carefully? Why were roads not regarded as significant in comparison with other information competing for space on the map?
Robert Morden was one of the first to show roads on a
county map of Hampshire, acknowledging them to be based
on John Ogilby's survey, 1675. Only a few roads appear
on Hampshire maps before 1750 which had not been
described by Ogilby; these include:-
There is an increase in the number of roads shown all over
the county; one is the road from Basingstoke to Winchester.
Many others are north-south routes, including:-
Many of Ogilby's routes survive, including three important roads from London through Hampshire:-
The pattern of A roads in 1965 is similar to that found on the
maps around 1800, though a few changes are apparent.
The A303 now takes more southerly route between Basingstoke and
Andover and replaces the A30 as the main route to the
west country. The other important east-west routes are from Southampton,
the A27 along the coast towards Chichester, the A31 to Dorchester
serving the large built up area of Bournemouth,
and the A36 to Bath. The main London to Southampton road is now via
Basingstoke and Winchester. The A34 from Winchester through Newbury
is the main route north. The other trunk road is the A3, from London to
Portsmouth, which still comes via Guilford.
On a more local scale, a main route is established from Farnham to
Petersfield, and Aldershot has grown into a town. There is continued
expansion on the south coast around Southampton and Portsmouth.
After the 1960's the building of motorways and bypasses has a significant effect on the roads in the county.
: 1828 (January): Plan shewing the New Road from Winchester to
Petersfield: Wheeler's Hampshire and West of England
Magazine (Charles H Wheeler, High Street, Winchester,
Box, E G: 1932-1934: Hampshire in Early Maps and Early Road-Books: ProcHCF: 12: pp.221-235
Box, E G: 1935-1937: Hampshire in Early Maps and Early Road-Books-II: ProcHCF: 13: pp.61-68
Brayshay, Mark: 1992: Royal Post-Horse Routes of Hampshire in the Reign of Elizabeth I, The: ProcHCF: 48: pp.121-134
Davies, Rev J Silvester: 1883: History of Southampton, A: Gilbert & Co. (Southampton):: pp.3, 233
James, Alan: 1970: Post, The: Batsford (London):: ISBN 0 7134 1764 1
Jervoise,E: 1930: Ancient Bridges of the South of England, The: Architectural Press (London)
MacEachren, A M & Johnson, G B: 1987 (December): Evolution, Application and Implications of Strip Format Travel Maps, The: Cartographic Journal: 24: pp.147-158
Maxwell, William H: 1899: Construction of Roads and Streets, The: St Brides Press (London)
Smith, D: 1989 (June): Strip Format Travel Maps: Cartographic Journal: 26: pp.39-41
|Old Hampshire Mapped|