Old Hampshire Mapped
John Ogilby made the first serious maps of roads
through Hampshire, in his book of strip maps for England
and Wales, Britannia, published in 1675.|
The route diagrams presented here aim to show for how long the Ogilby Routes stayed important, emphasising them by greying out the other routes. The diagrams show the roads found on some of the county maps of Hampshire; others are constructed from road strip maps, or extracted from general maps of England.
The diagrams are drawn in two sizes: the smaller is shown first with limited place names to orientate you within the county; the larger version shows a greater selection of the places through which the emphasised routes pass. It is necessary to bear in mind the difference between a route, which goes from one place to another somehow, and the actual road used on the journey. The larger diagrams also show the further destinations where these are known to match Ogilby's.
A dotted line has been used on our route diagrams where we
think the map maker has intended to follow Ogilby's road
but has not in fact done so. This occurs quite often despite
the fact that Ogilby's roads were shown very accurately
on the strip maps. It is most noticeable on the county maps,
where map makers had to combine information from the
strip maps with less accurate data already in the more usual map form. Or perhaps some makers copied Ogilby's general map,
which did not carry enough detailed information to show the
correct roads on a county scale map.|
John Ogilby's choice of routes must have reflected what was
considered important at that time. Was it a good choice? He
starts with the direct routes from London and their
dependants, and continues with cross roads and accidentals:
it is certain that some were included or left out of the last
two categories to make the exact number of 100 plates.
Ogilby's perspective was countrywide and may well have
been concentrated on long distance routes, particularly
those from London, or those serving ports. In particular
they included, in Hampshire:-
John Ogilby's survey of 1675 provided map makers with
detailed information on a selection of major routes in
Hampshire. Most of the roads shown on county maps up to the
1750s are Ogilby routes; this may be because they were indeed
the most important roads, or more likely because the map
makers often cribbed from existing sources rather than making
new surveys or choices. They sometimes acknowledged
their copying. The road books of Bowen and Senex follow
Ogilby's roads exactly. Even as late as 1788, Harrison's
map shows, just south of Overton, Thetherton, which is
an error on Ogilby's strip map. The place is called
Setherton in Ogilby's text; it is almost certainly
Towards the end of the 18th century, when county surveying had improved, Ogilby's routes appear in their proper perspective, as elements of a local network. It is possible that by selecting certain roads and mapping them, John Ogilby had encouraged travellers to use them, reinforcing their status as accepted routes. Whatever the reason, many of Ogilby's roads, with only minor changes, continued to be important and are to be found in later maps.
It is possible to trace the Ogilby routes on modern maps (1997); the summary presented below gives the approximate route within Hampshire, related to modern roads where possible.
|plates 25, 26||
Bagshot, through Basingstoke and Andover,
...in general a very good Road with suitable Entertainment.
|1675-1825||This major east-west road across the north of the county, passes through Basingstoke and Andover. It changed little, in Hampshire, during the period to 1825. From the 1750s the main route continues to Lands End, beyond Salisbury, through Dorchester; earlier the way went via Sherborn.|
To the east of Basingstoke, this route is the A30; by 1997
the M3 is running parallel. Between Basingstoke and Andover,
Ogilby's road is mostly the B3400, the main road now following
a more southerly route. West of Andover, Ogilby's route follows
the A343 towards Salisbury, whilst the modern trunk route to
the South West takes a route further north through Amesbury.|
through Petersfield to Portsmouth|
A good Sandy Way, well frequented and accommodated.
|1675-1825||This was a very important route at least from 1675 onwards, and it is shown on all the maps studied. It ends at Portchester or at Portsea on Morden's earliest maps.|
The road follows the A3 to Portsea Island. By 1997
the section between Liphook and Petersfield has become
Andover towards Amesbury|
... in general a good Way ...
|1675-1825||The road shown by Ogilby follows the Portway out of Andover to Quarley Hill before turning east. It ceases to be a major road in the 1750s when an alternative to Amesbury via Weyhill is established.|
Now mostly minor roads.|
|plate 39||through Petersfield to Winchester|
|1675-1825||This is a branch off the London to Chichester road at Midhurst, and is not shown between Petersfield and Winchester on Ogilby's general map. He describes it as more unpleasant, and Milne, 1792, marks it as a bad road. A route via Ropley Dean becomes the preferred route around 1800. Wheeler's Magazine of 1828 describes a proposal, made in Vancouver's Hants Survey, for a turnpike road following much of the old route.|
The A272 now follows this route through Petersfield to
Cheriton. The route then follows tracks; and then the A31.
By 1997 the road into Winchester.has become the B3404.|
Bagshot through Farnham and Alton to Southampton;|
Southampton through Romsey towards Salisbury
A very good Road to Southampton, and thence to Salisbury indifferent.
This remains the usual route to Southampton until about 1800.
After this date a different road between Alton and New Alresford
is shown, through Ropley Dean. And instead of continuing to
Southampton via Twyford, the route goes via Winchester.|
The road from Southampton to Romsey is usually shown, but sometimes as a minor route.
This is roughly the A325 to Farnham, then the A31 to Alton.
Then it follows tracks and minor roads to New Alresford
where the A31 is rejoined. Then it goes by track and minor
road to Twyford. In 1965 the road is briefly the A333, then the
A335 to Southampton. In 1997, it is the B3335, becoming the A335
after crossing the Itchen.|
From Southampton to Romsey the way is mostly the A3057; then the A27 towards Salisbury.
Basingstoke through Stockbridge|
... for the most part a good and well-beaten Road.
|1675-1825||The Basingstoke to Stockbridge road is frequently shown, though it does not appear on several Morden maps. Beyond Stockbridge, some maps show a route to Salisbury, instead of Ogilby's route which is towards Downton.|
In 1965, the route is roughly the A30 from Basingstoke to
Stockbridge. In 1997, it is the A30 then the A303 to Popham
Beacons, then a minor road to Sutton Scotney where the route
rejoins the A30. From Stockbridge it goes south-west on minor
roads and tracks.|
from Newbury through Kingsclere, Basingstoke, Alton
and Petersfield, towards Chichester|
The Road is for the most part indifferent good, and every where furnish'd with convenient Inns, &c.
|1675-1825||The route through Kingsclere and Basingstoke to Alton is included on some but not all maps as a major road. From the 1750s the road south of Herriard is usually shown re-routed west of Lasham. The road from Alton through Petersfield changes little.|
The A339 into Basingstoke, then cross country, rejoining the
A339 briefly, but entering Alton on a minor road from the north.
Out through Chawton and along the A32, turning
off on a minor road over the Barnet to Petersfield; then
tracks, eventually joining the B2146 towards Chichester.|
|plate 83||through North Tidworth towards Salisbury|
|1675-1825||The section of the route from Oxford to Poole through Hampshire is described by Ogilby as indifferent. It does not appear on all maps, in particular when an alternative route from Oxford to Salisbury is provided by the Newbury-Andover road.|
The old route briefly follows the A338 at North Tidworth, but
is otherwise cross-country.|
from New Alresford, through Winchester, Romsey, Ringwood
from Poole through Christchurch to Lymington;
from Southampton to Winchester
... affording in most Parts a good Road, and fitting Entertainment for Travellers.
The route from Winchester to Poole can be found on most maps
of the period. Some map makers show a direct route between
New Alresford and Winchester, instead of using segments
of routes 51 and 39.|
The road from Christchurch to Lymington is usually shown, but sometimes as a minor road.
On early maps, the line of the road from Southampton to Otterborne on the way to Winchester is often confused with the route to Alresford through Twyford which keeps closer to the river Itchen.
From the 1750s the segments from New Alresford to Winchester and Winchester to Southampton together become part of the preferred London to Southampton route.
In 1965 the route from New Alresford to Romsey was the A31.
In 1997, it is the B3047 west from Alresford to join the A31;
then the B3404 through Winchester, joining the A3090 through Romsey.
West of Romsey the route follows the A31 approximately, passing
Picket Post then on through Ringwood. At the present county boundary
take the A348 to Longham Bridge.|
Leave Poole on the A35, at Christchurch join the A337 to Lymington. In 1997 there is a minor road through Christchurch town centre, then the B3059 before the A337
In 1965 the route from Southampton to Winchester is the A33. In 1997 from Southampton start on the A33, then take minor roads with a small section on the B3404, in the same direction as the M3; then follow the B3335 into Winchester.
: 1828 (January): Plan shewing the New Road from Winchester to
Petersfield: Wheeler's Hampshire and West of England
Magazine (Charles H Wheeler, High Street, Winchester,
Box, E G: 1932-1934: Hampshire in Early Maps and Early Road-Books: ProcHCF: 12: pp.221-235
Box, E G: 1935-1937: Hampshire in Early Maps and Early Road-Books-II: ProcHCF: 13: pp.61-68
Brayshay, Mark: 1992: Royal Post-Horse Routes of Hampshire in the Reign of Elizabeth I, The: ProcHCF: 48: pp.121-134
James, Alan: 1970: Post, The: Batsford (London):: ISBN 0 7134 1764 1
MacEachren, A M & Johnson, G B: 1987 (December): Evolution, Application and Implications of Strip Format Travel Maps, The: Cartographic Journal: 24: pp.147-158
Maxwell, William H: 1899: Construction of Roads and Streets, The: St Brides Press (London)
Smith, D: 1989 (June): Strip Format Travel Maps: Cartographic Journal: 26: pp.39-41
|Old Hampshire Mapped|