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Pages 169-210 are Cumberland.
BEFORE Westmorland to the west lies Cumberland, the
last county of England this way, being bounded on the north
by Scotland, washed on the south and west by the Irish sea,
and on the east joining to Northumberland above Westmorland.
It takes its name from its inhabitants, who were true and
genuine Britans, and in their own language called themselves
Kumbri and Kambri. History informs us, that
the Britans long resided here during the Saxon tyrany; and
Marianus himself says the same thing, and calls this country
Cumbrorum terra; not to mention the British names
continually recurring as Caer-luel, Caer-dronoc,
Pen-rith, Pen-rodoc &c. which plainly bespeak this,
and are the strongest proof of my assertion.
The country, though it may seem colder by reason of its northern situation and rough with mountains, affords an agreeable variety to travellers. For after the swelling rocks and thickest mountains pregnant with all kinds of wild-fowl succeed verdant hills of rich pasturage, covered with flocks, and below them extensive plains yielding plenty of corn. Besides all these the sea which beats against the coast maintains innumerable shoals of excellent fish, and seems to reproach the inhabitants for their inattention to fishery.
Copeland. Duden r.
Millum. Ravenglass Esk r.
Hardknott near Wrinose. Irt r.
The south part of this county is called Copeland and
Coupland, because it rises in pointed mountains,
which the British call Kopa, or as others think
Copeland for Copperland, from its rich veins
of copper. In this at the sandy mouth of the Duden,
which separates it from Lancashire, is Millum, a
castle of the antient family of the Hodlestons;
whence the shore retiring to the north presents
Ravenglass, a station where, I was told, were once
two Roman inscriptions. It is conveniently environed by two
rivers. Some will have it to have been called antiently
Aven glass or the blue river, and tell many
stories about king Eveling, who had a palace here.
One of these rivers is named Esk, and rises at the
foot of Hard knott, a very steep mountain, on whose
summit were lately discovered huge stones and foundations of
a castle, to the astonishment of the beholders, it being so
steep as hardly to be ascended. Higher up the little river
Irt runs into the sea, in which the shell-fish having
by a kind of irregular motion [a] taken in the dew, which
they are extremely fond of, are impregnated, and produce
pearls, or, to use the poet's phrase, baccae
concheae, shell-berries, which the inhabitants, when the
tide is out, search for, and our jewellers buy of the poor
for a trifle, and sell again at a very great price. Of these
and the like Marbodeus [b] seems to speak in that line;
Gignit & insignes antiqua Britannia baccas.
Old Britain also famous berries yields.
St. Bees. Egremont
c. Lords of Copeland.
St Bees Head
The shore now advancing gradually to the west forms a little
point, commonly called St. Bees for St.
Bega's. This Bega was a devout and holy virgin of
Ireland, who passed her life in solitude here, and to whose
piety many miracles are ascribed, as taming a wild bull, and
by her prayers covering with a great depth of snow the
vallies and hill tops in the middle of summer. Scarce a mile
from hence stands on a hill Egremont castle, the
antient seat of William de Meschines, to whom Henry
I. gave it "by the service of one knight's fee, that he
should march at the king's command in the army against Wales
and Scotland." He left a daughter married to William Fitz
Duncan of the blood royal of Scotland, by whose daughter
the estate came into the family of the Lucies. From
them again by the Moltons and Fitz Walters the
title of Egremont came to the Radcliffes earls
of Sussex. It was however enjoyed for a considerable time by
favour of Henry VI. by Thomas Percy, who had summons
to parliament by the style of Thomas Percy of Egremont.
The shore fortified.
Moresby. Picts holes.
Here the shore goes on a little retreating, and it appears
from the ruins of walls, that wherever the landing was easy
it was fortified by the Romans. For it was the extreme
boundary of the Roman empire, and this coast was
particularly exposed to the Scots when they spread
themselves like a deluge over this island from Ireland. Here
is Moresby, a little village, where, from these
fortifications, we may conclude was a station for ships.
Here are many traces of antiquity in the vaults and
foundations, many caverns called Picts holes, many
fragments of inscriptions are here dug up, one of which has
the name of LVCIVS SEVERINVS ORDINATVS; another COH. VIII. I
saw there this altar, lately dug up, with a small horned
statue of Silvanus:
DEO SILVAN ..
COH. II. LING
CUI PRAEAES ..
G. POMPEIVS M...
Cohors 2da Lingonum
G. Pompeius M.
The following fragment was copied and transmitted to me by J. Fletcher lord of the place:
OB PROSPE ..
He wrote a Latin poem on jewels and precious stones, printed
at Cologne 1539. Hoffm. Lex.
|-- "Copeland" -- Copeland|
|-- "Cumberland" -- Cumberland|
|-- "Egremont Castle" -- Egremont Castle|
|-- "Irt, River" -- Irt, River|
|-- "Millum Castle" -- Millom Castle|
|-- "Ravenglass" -- Ravenglass|
|-- (roman fort, Hardknott Pass)|
|-- (roman wall, Maryport)|
|-- St Bees Head|