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placename:- Brough
other name:- Brough-under-Stainmore
other name:- Market Brough
parish Brough parish, once in Westmorland
county:- Cumbria
building/s -- market town;
coordinates:- NY795146
10Km square:- NY71
place code:- Brgh

1Km square NY7914

photograph

Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006
photograph

Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006

old map:- OS County Series (Wmd 16 15)

OS County Series (Wmd 16 16)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.
County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- Market Brough
other name:- Brough under Stainmore
other name:- Church Brough
building/s
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02NY71, button to large image
BROUGH

placename:- Brough
county:- Westmoreland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Wallis 1810

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 19 miles to 1 inch, by James Wallis, 77 Berwick Street, Soho, London, 1810; published 1810-36.
PRINCIPAL INNS, RECOMMENDED TO TRAVELLERS AND FAMILIES.
Brough: Swan, Black Bull, Fleece, New Inn.
...
PRINCIPAL FAIRS.
Brough: Thursday before Whitsunday, horned cattle and sheep.

placename:- Brough
date:- 1810
period:- 19th century, early; 1810s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 148:-
[VER]TERAE, an antient town mentioned by Antoninus and the Notitia, which last adds that in the decline of the Roman empire here was a Roman praefect stationed with a Numerus Directorum. The town at present reduced to a mean village, fortified with a small rampart, has changed its name to Burgh, by our people called Burgh under Stanemore. Under the later emperors, to remark once for all, small castles proper for war and well supplied, began to be called Burghs by a new name, which, after the removal of the empire into the east, the Germans and other nations seemed to have borrowed from the Greek πυ�ς, whence the Burgundiones has their name from inhabiting Burg, the common term at that time for dwellings thick scattered on borders. I find no further mention of this place except that in the beginning of the Norman government the English here formed a conspiracy against William the Norman. I would venture to affirm this Burgh to be VERTERAE for this single reason, that the distance between it and Lavatrae one way, and Brovonacum the other, reduced to Italian miles, exactly corresponds with numbers in Antoninus, and the Roman military way with a visible ridge runs this way to BROVONACUM through ABALLABA, mentioned in the Notitia, which still retains its name with so little variation as to discover itself most clearly, and remove every doubt. For we call it by shortness from Aballaba Apelby. ...

placename:- Verterae
other name:- Burgh
other name:- Burgh under Stanemore
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 157:-
...
The town is divided into two, upper or church Brough (or Western), ... The other part is called Lower or Market Brough, from the inconsiderable market held there every Thursday. The chapel here is now a freeschool.

placename:- Lower Brough
other name:- Market Brough
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P243, button   goto source.
Tour to the Caves in the West Riding of Yorkshire, late 18th century
Page 243:-
...
... Bremetonacae [Overborough] is placed ... twenty-seven Roman (or twenty-four English) miles south of Galacum, which some antiquaries conceive to be Apulby, though others with more probability think it was Brough: the distances correspond, besides the additional argument of their being nearly in the same direction, whether we conceive Galacum to be Apulby or Brough. The Roman road is easily traced from Ribchester ... to Overborough; afterwards the Roman road goes through Casterton and Middleton, and, as some think, by Borrow-bridge and Orton, to Apulby. Others, and perhaps from better reasons, are of opinion, the road went by Sedbergh, or Sedburgh, over Blewcaster, along Ravenstonedale-street, and through Kirkby-Stephen, to Brough or Burgh.

other name:- Burgh
other name:- Galacum
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

old map:- Jefferys 1770

Map, The County of Westmoreland, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, surveyed by J Ainslie and perhaps T Donald, engraved and published by Thomas Jefferys, London, 1770.
thumbnail JEF5Brgh, button to large image
BROUGH / Verterae
blocks on a street plan, Church Brough with large house and castle

placename:- Brough
other name:- Verterae
date:- 1770
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
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Brough Ma. Th. / V
blocks, on road, vicarage, town, market

placename:- Brough
market town
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP3P4, button   goto source.
Page 1022:-
... William King of Scots took this Town [Appleby], and the Burgh under Stanemore by Suprize, a little before himself was taken at Alnwick; but they were afterward recovered by King John, ...
image SMP3P6, button   goto source.
Page 1024:-
...
Brough, or Burgh, under Stanemore, i.e.a Borough under a stony Mountain. It stands on a Rivulet about two Miles from the River Eden, and is divided into [two]
image SMP3P7, button   goto source.
Page 1025:-
two Towns, viz. the Upper alias Church Brough, ... The other Part is called Lower Brough from its Situation, and Market Brough from its Market, which is pretty considerable, and is kept on Thursday.
image SMP3P7, button   goto source.
Page 1025:-
...
Verterae must be Brough under Stanemore for several Reasons, viz. the Name which imports Antiquity, its Situation upon a Roman Highway, and the exact Agreement of the Distances from Levatrae and Brovonacum.

placename:- Brough under Stanemore
other name:- Burgh under Stanemore
other name:- Lower Brough
other name:- Market Brough
other name:- Verterae
person:- : William, King of Scots
person:- : John
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Simpson 1746 map (Wmd)

image SMP2NYQ, button   goto source.
thumbnail SMP2NYQ, button to large image
Brough
Building, labelled as a town.

placename:- Brough
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
Brough Market Wednesday.

placename:- Brough
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD10NY71, button   goto source.
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Circle, not labelled.
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

source:- Lloyd 1573

Map, Angliae Regni, Kingdom of England, with Wales, scale about 24 miles to 1 inch, authored by Humphrey Lloyd, Denbigh, Clwyd, drawn and engraved by Abraham Ortelius, Netherlands, 1573.
thumbnail Lld1Cm, button to large image
Burgh

placename:- Burgh
date:- 1573
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

old map:- Gough 1350s-60s

Reproduction of the Gough Map of Great Britain, reduced size, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, 1875; and a full size line reproduction, with added transcriptions of placenames, 1935.
thumbnail Ggh1Cm, button to large image
thumbnail Ggh2Cm, button to large image

placename:- Burgh c.
county:- Cumbria

market notes:- see:- Palmer's Index No.93:: Public Record Office

see:- Owen: 1792: New Book of Fairs

see:- Bowen, Emanuel & Kitchin, Thomas: 1760: New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland

Thursday market at Brough under Staynmore, granted by Edward III to Roger de Clifford, 2 August 1330. Moved here from Church Brough.
Letter patent for a market at Burgh, 4 Ed 3, 1330-31, in Palmer's Index No.93 at the Public Record Office.
Market day Thursday given on Bowen and Kitchin's map, 1760.
Market listed by Owen, 1792.

placename:- Brough under Staynmore
other name:- Burgh
person:- : Edward III
person:- Clifford, Roger de
market town
date:- 1330; 1792; 1760

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
second page
(8) Places of memorable note for Antiquitie are Verterae, mentioned by Antonine the Emperour; ... In [which] ... the Northern English conspired against William the Conquerour in the beginning of the Norman government: ...
third page
... Verterae is long since decayed, and the name of it changed into Burgh: for it is commonly called Burgh under Stanemore. In which, it is said, a Romane Captaine made his abode with a band of Directores, in the declining age of the Romane Empire. These two places [Brough and Appleby] William of Newborough called Princely Holds, and writeth that William King of Scots a little before he himselfe was taken prisoner at Alnewicke, surprized them on a sodaine, but King John recovered them after, and liberally bestowed them upon Robert Vipont, for his many worthy services.

placename:- Verterae
other name:- Burgh under Stanemore
person:- : Antoninus
person:- : William the Conqueror
person:- : Newborough, William of
person:- : William, King of Scots
person:- : John
person:- : Vipont, Robert
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century; 1620s

hearth tax returns:- Hearth Tax 1670

in Westmoreland / The Hundred of Bottome of Westmoreland
Greatt Brough

placename:- Greatt Brough
date:- 1670
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

road book:- Cary 1798 (2nd edn 1802)

Road book, Cary's New Itinerary, by John Cary, published by G and J Cary, 86 St James's Street, London, 1798-1828.
thumbnail C38281, button to large image
page 281-282
Brough - New Inn, Westmor. / At Brough on r. a T.R. to Kirkby Stephen.
market town, post office
thumbnail C38285, button to large image
page 285-286
INNS. ... Brough, New Inn, Swan. ...
thumbnail C38315, button to large image
page 315-316
Brough / INNS. Brough, New Inn, Swan.
market town, post office

placename:- Brough
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

descriptive text:- Lowther 1780s-90s

Scrapbook, 4 volumes, of descriptive texts, maps, and prints of views and coats of arms, for Westmorland and Cumberland, assembled by a member of the Lowther Family, late 18th early 19th century.
Text with a print, engraving, Brough Castle, drawn by Samuel Hooper, engraved by Sparrow, 1775:-
BROUGH CASTLE, WESTMORELAND.
...
'THIS castle of Brough under Stainmore, ...
THE present proprietor of these ruins is the Earl of Thanet. Of late years they have been much demolished for the sake of the materials, which have been used in building stables, garden walls, and other conveniences; ...
CAMDEN describing this country says, '... The town itself is dwindled into a village, which is defended with a small fort, and its name is now Burgh; for it is called Burgh under Stanmore, i. e. a Brough under a Stony Mountain. It is divided into two. The Upper, otherwise Church-Brough, ... The other village is called Lower Brough, from its situation; and Market Brough from a market held there every Thursday. ...

placename:- Brough under Stainmore
other name:- Burgh under Stanmore
other name:- Burgh
other name:- Lower Brough
other name:- Market Brough
date:- 1775
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- Plaque on a house in High Street, east of the bridge, north side, with a mason's tools -- NY79691456 (at) -- 21.4.2006

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2008

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