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placename:- Brough Castle
locality:- Church Brough
locality:- Brough
parish Brough parish, once in Westmorland
county:- Cumbria
castle
coordinates:- NY791141
10Km square:- NY71

1Km square NY7914

photograph

Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 7.7.2006
photograph

Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 29.7.2011

old map:- OS County Series (Wmd 16 15)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.
Brough Castle / Caesar's Tower

placename:- Brough Castle
other name:- Caesar's Tower
castle
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old map:- Bell 1833

thumbnail Bel2Vgn2, button to large image
Vignette on map of Westmorland.

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1833
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 157:-
...
... upper or church Brough (or Western), ... Here also stands the castle (a high square tower and not unlike Richmond castle), ... The castle having been burnt to the ground 1521, was rebuilt 1661 by the countess of Pembroke before-mentioned, and was again reduced to a ruin by Thomas earl of Thanet 1695. ...
person:- : Pembroke, Anne, Lady
person:- : Thanet, Earl of
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
thumbnail BO18NY71, button to large image
Brough Castle
circle and flag

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP3P7, button   goto source.
Page 1025:-
... [Church Brough] ... with a Castle and a small Fort called Caesar's Tower, the former of which being demolished, was rebuilt not very many Years ago by a Countess of Pembroke. ...
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD10NY71, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD10NY71, button to large image
Burgh Castle ol Vertara
Circle.

placename:- Burgh Castle
other name:- Vertara
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Jansson 1646

Map, Cumbria et Westmoria, or Cumberland and Westmorland, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Jansson, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1646; published 1646-1724.
thumbnail JAN3NY71, button to large image
Burgh Cast.
Buildings and tower with flag.

placename:- Burgh Castle
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1646
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Wmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SP14NY71, button to large image
Burgh Cast
circle, buildings and tower

placename:- Burgh Castle
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Saxton 1576

Map, Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comitatus ie Westmorland and Cumberland, scale about 5 miles to 1 inch, by Christopher Saxton, London, engraved by Augustinus Ryther, 1576; published 1579-1645.
image Sax9NY71, button   goto source.
thumbnail Sax9NY71, button to large image
Building with two towers, symbol for a castle.
Burgh cast:

placename:- Burgh Castle
county:- Westmorelandia
castle
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

text:- Jackson 1990

Jackson, M J

other name:- Burc Castle
other name:- Burg Castle
other name:- Burgh Castle
other name:- Burgo Castle

hearth tax returns:- Hearth Tax 1675

Brough Castle
in
Brough

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1675
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

old print:- Rose 1832-35 (vol.2 no.12)

Engravings - Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Illustrated; from drawings by Thomas Allom, George Pickering, and H Gastineau, described by Thomas Rose, published by H Fisher, R Fisher, and P Jackson, Newgate Street, London, 1832-35.
thumbnail PR0615, button to large image
Print, engraving, Brough Castle, Westmorland, by Thomas Allom, engraved by W le Petit, 1833.
Originally in vol.2 no.12 in Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Ilustrated, with descriptions by Thomas Rose, published by H Fisher, R Fisher, and P Jackson, Newgate, London, about 1835.

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1833
period:- 19th century, early

old print:- Rose 1832-35

Engravings - Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Illustrated; from drawings by Thomas Allom, George Pickering, and H Gastineau, described by Thomas Rose, published by H Fisher, R Fisher, and P Jackson, Newgate Street, London, 1832-35.
thumbnail R212, button to large image
Brough Castle, Westmorland
Drawn by Thomas Allom, engraved by W le Petit, 1833.
date:- 1833
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old print:- Rose 1832-35

Engravings - Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Illustrated; from drawings by Thomas Allom, George Pickering, and H Gastineau, described by Thomas Rose, published by H Fisher, R Fisher, and P Jackson, Newgate Street, London, 1832-35.
thumbnail R2E16, button to large image
date:- 1830
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old print:- Pennant 1773 (edn 1801)

thumbnail PEN619, button to large image
Print, engraving, Brough Church, St Michael's Church, Brough, Westmorland, drawn by Moses Griffith, engraved by Comte, published by Edward Harding, 98 Pall Mall, London, 1801.
Tipped in opposite p.137 of A Tour from Downing to Alston Moor, 1773, by Thomas Pennant.
Brough Castle in the background.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
Moses Griffith. Del / Comte Sc / BROUGH CHURCH / Pub June 7 1801 by Edw Harding 98 Pall Mall.
date:- 1801
period:- 18th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR0152, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Brough Castle, Westmorland, drawn by W Westall, engraved by E Finden, about 1830s?
This engraving is used as a vignette on Bell's map of the county, 1833.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
Drawn by W. Westall, A.R.A. / E. Finden sculp. / BROUGH CASTLE, / WESTMORELAND.

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1830=1839
period:- 19th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR0201, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Brough Castle, Westmorland, engraved by Sparrow, published by Samuel Hooper, 1775.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
Printed for S. Hooper 7 May 1775. / Sparrow Sc. / Brough Castle, Westmorland

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1775
period:- 18th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR0202, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Brough Castle, Westmoreland, engraved by Sparrow, published by Samuel Hooper, 1775.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
May 7. 1775. Saml. Hooper. / Sparrow Sc. / BROUGH CASTLE, WESTMORELAND. / ...

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1775
period:- 18th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR0236, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Brough Castle, Westmorland, published early 19th century?
printed at bottom:-
BROUGH CASTLE. / WESTMORLAND.

placename:- Brough Castle
date:- 1800=1839
period:- 19th century, early

descriptive text:- Lowther 1780s-90s

Scrapbook, 4 volumes, of descriptive texts, maps, and prints of views and coats of arms, for Westmorland and Cumberland, assembled by a member of the Lowther Family, late 18th early 19th century.
thumbnail BNF20, button to large image
Print, engraving, Brough Castle, drawn by Samuel Hooper, engraved by Sparrow, 1775; with descriptive text:-
BROUGH CASTLE, WESTMORELAND.
THIS castle stands near the north-east part of the county, and on the western bank of the river Eden. It is by some writers deemed a Roman building. Possibly a Roman fortress might have stood here before the Conquest; but the present edifice has incontestable marks of Norman origin. In the Additions to Camden, printed in Bishop Gibson's edition, the present structure is attributed to the Countess of Pembroke, if the following words are to be taken literally: 'Here also stands the Castle of Brough, and a Tower called Caesar's Tower, or the Fort before-mentioned. The Castle, having been rased to the ground, was rebuilt, not long since, by the Countess of Pembroke.' But that this is a mistake, is evident from an inscription formerly standing over the gateway, but now thrown down, and laid under the water-wheel of Brough Mill; of which this is a genuine copy:
'THIS castle of Brough under Stainmore, and the Great Tower of it, was repaired by the Lady Ann Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke-Dorse, and Montgomery, Baron Clifford, Westmoreland and Visey, High Sheriff by inheritance of the County of Westmoreland, and Lady of the Honour of Skipton in Craven, in the year of our Lord God 1659; so as she came to lie in it herself for a little while in September 1661, after it had lain ruinous without timber, or any covering, ever since the year 1521, when it was burnt by a casual fire. Isa. chap. lviii. ver. 12. 'God's name be praised.'
THE above Inscription manifestly proves that the repairs done by the Countess were chiefly internal, and that the ruins now seen are those of the original building: but by whom or when they were built, neither Leland, Camden, or any other of the Topographical Writers (at least those in print), mention; tho', as has been above observed, the similarity of its Keep to those of Dover, Bamborough, Rochester, the Tower of London, and many others, plainly evince it was constructed on the Norman model.
THE present proprietor of these ruins is the Earl of Thanet. Of late years they have been much demolished for the sake of the materials, which have been used in building stables, garden walls, and other conveniences; and particularly about the year 1763, a great part of the north-east round tower was pulled down to repair Brough Mill, at which time the Mason therein employed, for the sake of the lead and iron with which it was fixed, displaced the stone which the Countess of Pembroke caused to be set over the gateway, on which was the inscription before cited.
CAMDEN describing this country says, 'Here Eden seems to stop its course, that it may receive some rivulets; upon one of which, scarce two miles from Eden itself, stood Verterae, an ancient town mentioned by Antoninus and the Notitia; from the latter of which we learn, that in the decline of the Roman empire a Praefect of the Romans quartered there with a band of the Directores. The town itself is dwindled into a village, which is defended with a small fort, and its name is now Burgh; for it is called Burgh under Stanmore, i. e. a Brough under a Stony Mountain. It is divided into two. The Upper, otherwise Church-Brough, where the Church standeth, of which Robert Eglesfield, Founder of Queen College in Oxford, was Rector, and procured the appropriation thereof from King Edward III. to the said College.' - And again: 'And near the Bridge is a Spaw-well, which hath not long been discovered. The other village is called Lower Brough, from its situation; and Market Brough from a market held there every Thursday. In the time of the latter Emperors (to observe this once for all) the Little Castles, which were built for the emergent occasions of war, and stored with provisions, began to be called Burgi; a new name, which, after the translation of the Empire into the East, the Germans and others seem to have taken from the Greek [ ]. And hence the Burgundians have their name from inhabiting the Burgi; for so that Age called the dwellings planted at a little distance from one another along the frontiers. I have read no more concerning this place, but that in the beginning of the Norman Government, the English formed a conspiracy here against William the Conqueror. I dare be positive that this Burgh was the Old Verterae; both because the distance, on one side from the Levatrae, and the other from Brovonacum, if resolved into Italian miles, exactly agrees with the number assigned by Antoninus; and also, because a Roman military road, still visible by its high ridge, runs this way to Brovonacum by Aballaba, mentioned in the Notitia; the name whereof is to this day kept so entire, that it plainly shews it to be the same, and leaves no ground for dispute; for instead of Aballaba we call it at this day by contraction Appleby.
ANNO 1774, William King of Scotland taking advantage of the absence of King Henry, then in France, quelling a rebellion excited by his sons, invaded England at the head of an army, chiefly composed of Flemmings, and took this Castle, together with those of Appleby and Prudehow; but four hundred horsemen being assembled by Robert de Stouteville, Ralph Granville, William Vesey, Barnard Balliol, and Odenotte de Humfreville, they came up with the Scots, who were retiring from the seige of Alnwick; and finding them dispersed over the country in search of plunder, whereby they had left the King slightly guarded, they attacked, and with very little bloodshed on either side made him prisoner.
THIS passage, which is mentioned by almost all our Historians, serves to shew that Brough-Castle was then in being; built, perhaps, at the time of the Conspiracy mentioned by Camden
This View was drawn Anno 1774.

placename:- Castle of Brough
person:- : Clifford, Anne, Lady
date:- 1775
period:- 18th century, late

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 29.7.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 29.7.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 29.7.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 21.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brough Castle -- Church Brough -- Brough -- Brough -- Cumbria / -- 7.7.2006

hearsay A stone castle was built here, on the northern part of the roman fort, Verteris, in 1095 for William Rufus.
It was destroyed by invading Scots, 1174.
... and afterwards the castle was rebuilt with a new keep, called the Roman Tower.
Sir Hugh de Morville strengthenned the castle in the 12th century.
The castle went to Roger de Vipont in 1204. Clifford Family became owners in 1268. It is thought that Robert Clifford built the round tower about 1300. Roger Clifford, his grandson, built the hall about the 1350s. This was destroyed by a fire set by the Scots, 1521, and the castle became derelict.
Lady Anne Clifford restored the castle, 1659-63. Her successors, Earls of Thanet, made Appleby their resience in the north and Brough Castle was left to decay. The roof and fittings were sold in 1715; stone was taken to build the church, 1714, and Brough Mill in 1763, and doubtless for local houses

story Brough Castle was destroyed by invading Scots, 1174, lead by William the Lion of Scotland. The six knights in the tower, and their men, were taken by surprise. They retreated to the tower, but this was set alight and they surrendered. Jordan Fantosme recorded the action in a ballad:-


references Robertson, Dawn & Koronka, Peter: 1992: Secrets and Legends of Old Westmorland: Pagan Press (Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria) & Cumbria CC (library service)

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2008

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