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placename:- Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
county, old
coordinates:- 2d 19m to 3d 37m W; 54d 11m to 55d 12m N

1Km square NGR_ED

photograph

Cumberland -- Cumbria / -- Old roadsign:- -- 'CUMBERLAND' -- Now used as a house name in Orton. -- 21.4.2006
photograph

Cumberland -- Cumbria / -- Old roadsign, coat of arms:- -- 21.4.2006

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 165:-
... There are two cairns on two summits [of Helvellyn], not far apart, ... These Men, (as such piles of stones are called) mark the
Page 166:-
dividing line between Cumberland and Westmorland. ...
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
THE Lake district extends over a portion of the three counties of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, being bounded on the south and west by the sea, which combines beautifully from many elevated points with the inland scenery, and occupying an area of about thirty miles in diameter. It consists of large masses or clusters of mountains, generally terminating in one aspiring and pre-eminent point, with the intermediate valleys occupied either by lakes and their subsidiary tarns, or by winding rivers.

placename:- Cumberland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
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Page 1:-
DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGLISH LAKES AND ADJACENT MOUNTAINS.
THE LAKES.
THE Mountainous District, in which the English Lakes are situated, extends into three Counties, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, which form their junction at a point upon the mountain Wrynose, near the road side. Lancashire is separated from Cumberland by the river Duddon; from Westmorland by the stream running through Little Langdale, and by Elterwater and Windermere, until south of Storrs Hall; after which the river Winster forms the boundary till it enters the sands near Medup; and the latter county is parted from Cumberland by the mountain ridge leading over Bowfell to Dunmail Raise, from thence over the top of Helvellyn, and through Glencoin
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Page 2:-
to Ullswater, and by the river Eamont till it enters the Eden. Windermere Lake is said to belong to Westmorland, at least its islands are claimed by that county; although the whole of its western and part of its eastern shores belong to Lancashire. Coniston and Esthwaite Lakes, with Blelham and the tarns of Coniston, are wholly in Lancashire. Grasmere, Rydal, and Hawes Water, with several tarns, lie in Westmorland. The head of Ullswater is in Westmorland, but below Glencoin it constitutes the boundary between that and Cumberland. Derwent, Bassenthwaite, Buttermere, Ennerdale, and Wastwater, are in Cumberland.
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... Near the road on Wrynose are the three shire stones of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire. ... crossing the head of the Duddon at Cockley-beck, we enter into Cumberland. ...
A clear statement that there are three separate stones.
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Page 110:-
... Dunmail Raise ... At the highest part of the road, a wall separates the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland; ...
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Page 149:-
THE GEOLOGY OF THE LAKE DISTRICT.
AT the time this essay was first published, the structure of the mountainous district of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, was but little understood; scientific travellers had contented themselves with procuring specimens of the different rocks, without taking time to become acquainted with their relative position. Since then, the subject has received more attention from persons conversant with geological inquiries; especially from the distinguished Professor Sedgwick. ...
person:- geologist : Sedgwick, Adam
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

part quoting John Leland
Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 179:-
THE county of Cumberland is in length from the Peel of Fouldry on the south to the north near Langford above 70 miles, and in breadth from Allenby on the west to Newbiggin bridge on the east 30 miles and upwards, 230 in circumference, contains about 1,040,000 acres, about 20,000 houses, and near 100,000 inhabitants. It is divided (as Westmorland, and for the same reason), into five wards, in which are eight market and two borough towns, and 58 parishes.
"The length of Cumberland by the shore is from a water called Dudden, the which devideth Furnesland from Cumbreland onto a lytle water or mere called Polt Rosse, the which devideth the county of Northumberland on the east side from Cumbreland. The bredeth of Cumbreland is from a water called Emot that divideth on the south side the one part Cumbreland from Westmorland until he enter into the river of Edon two miles from Pereth by east, and so on the east side of Edon unto a broke called... the which divideth likewise Cumbreland from Westmerland unto the ryver of Eske in the north side, the which divideth Cumbreland from the batable ground until it come to the arm of the se which divideth England from Scotland."

placename:- Cumberland
other name:- Cumbreland
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 209:-
An Account of the Division of Cumberland by William the Conqueror amongst his Followers; taken out of two antient Latin Manuscripts in the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle; carefully collated by the Rev. Dr. Hugh Todd (who communicated it to Bishop Gibson.)
KING William, sirnamed the Bastard, duke of Normandy, Conqueror of England, gave all the lands of the county of Cumberland to Ranulphus de Meschines: and to Galfridus, brother to the said Ranulph, he gave the whole county of Chestre: and to William another brother he gave all the land of Coupland between Duden and Darwent.
Ranulphus de Meschines infeoffed Hubertus de Waux in the barony of Gillesland; and Ranulphus his brother in Sowerby, Carlaton, and Hubbrightby. And Robert the third brother in the barony of Dalston. He infoeffed also Robert Destrivers in the barony of Burgh, and Richerus de Boyvile in the barony of Levington, and Odardus de Logis in the barony of Staynton. He infeoffed also Waldevus, son of Gospatricus earl of Dunbar in Scotland, in all the barony of Allerdale between Wathenpole and Darwent.
The aforesaid William de Meschines lord of Coupland, infeoffed Waldevus, son of Gospatricus, in all the land that lies between Cocar and Darwent, and also in these townships Brigham, Eglysfeld, Dene, Brainthwaite, and Grisothen: and the two Cliftons and Staneburne. He infeoffed also Odardus le Clerk in the fourth part of Crostwaite, pro custodia asturcorum suorum, i.e. for keeping his goshawkes.
Galfridus de Meschines earl of Chester, died without issue; and thereupon Ranulphus de Meschines became earl of Chestre; and surrendered to the king all the county of Cumberland, on this condition, that all those that held lands of him in fee should hold of the king in capite.
It is called Distributio Cumbriae ad Conquestum Angliae inter gentes. Sir William Dugdale calls it Chronicon Cumbriae; and so the lord William Howard has styled it one of the MSS. but it is a mistake; for that piece of antiquity, if it be extant, was of another nature, and written by Everardus abbot of Holme Cultram t. Hen. II. It was said to be in the library of sir Thomas Gower, bart. but upon search it could not be found. G. Everardus was the first abbot of Holm Cultram 1175, and died 1192, having written the lives of several northern saints. Dempster, v.479. Tanner, Bib. Brit. 271.
The foresaid Waldevus, son of earl Gospatricus, infeoffed Odardus de Logis in the barony of Wygton, Dondryt, Waverton, Blancogo, and Kirkbride: which Odardus de Logis founded the church of Wygton; and gave to Odardus, son of Liolfe, Tulentyre and Castlerige, with the forest between Caltre and Greta: and to the prior and convent of Gisburne he gave Appleton and Bricekirk, with the advowson of the church there. He gave also to Adam son of Liolfe, Uldendale and Gilcruce: and to Gemellus son of Brun, Bothill; and to Waldevus son of Gileminius, with Ethreda his sister, he gave Brogham, Ribton and Little Brogham, and Donwaldese and Bowaldese ad unam legiam, for a lodge or house for a ranger. He gave also to Ormus son of Ketellus Seton, Camberton, Flemingbi, Craiksothen, in marriage with Gurwelda his sister: and to Dolfinus son of Abwaldus with Matilda another sister he gave Appletwhaite and Little Crosby, Langrige and Brigham, with the advowson of the church there. He gave also to Melbeth his physician the town of Bromefeld; saving to himself the advowson of the church there.
Alanus, son and heir of the said Waldevus, gave to Ranulphus Lyndsey Blenerhasset and Ukmanby, with Ethereda his sister. To Uthrdeus, son of Fergus lord of Galloway, in marriage with Gurnelda his own sister, he gave Torpenhow, with the advowson of the church there. He gave also to Catellus de Spenser Threpeland, He gave also to Herbert the manor of Thuresby, for the third part of a township. He gave also to Gospatricus, son of Ormus, High Ireby, for the third part of a township. He gave also to Gamellus le Brun Rughtwaite, for a third part of a township. He gave also to Radulphus Engaine Issael with the appurtenances; and Blencrake with the service of Newton. And the same Alanus had one bastard brother named Gospatricus, to whom he gave Boulton, Bastinthwaite and Esterholme. And to Odardus he gave Newton, with the appurtenances. And to his three huntsmen Sleth and to his companions Hayton. To Uctredus he gave one carrucat of land in Aspatrike, on condition that he should be his summoner (summonitor) in Allerdale. He gave also to Delfinus six bovates or oxgangs of land in High Crosby, that he should be serviens d. regis, the king's serjeant in Allerdale. And to Simon de Shestelyngs he gave one moiety of Deram. And to Dilfinus, son of Gospatricus, the other mooiety. He gave also to Waldevus, son of Dolfinus, Brakanthwaite. And to the priory of St. Bega he gave Stainburne. And to the priory of Carliol he gave the body of Walddevus his son, with the holy cross, which they have yet in possession; and Crosby, with the advowson of the church there, with the service that Uctredus owed him; and also the advowson of the church of Aspatrike, with the service of Alanus de Brayton. He gave them also the advowson of the church of Ireby, with the suit and service of Waldevus de Langthwaite.
The same Alanus, son of Waldevus, gave to king Henry the fields of the forest of Allerdale, with liberty to hunt whenever he should lodge at Holme Cultrane. To this Alanus succeeded William, son
Page 210:-
of Duncane earl of Murrayse, nephew and heir to the said Alanus as being son to Ethreda sister to his father Waldevus.
The foresaid William, son of Duncanus, espoused Alicia, daughter of Robert de Rumeney, lord of Skipton in Craven; which Robert had married a daughter of Meschines lord of Coupland. This William had by this Alicia his wife, a son called Willliam de Egremond (who died under age), and three daughters. The eldest named Cicilia, being a ward, was married by king Henry to William le Gross earl of Albemarle, with the honour of Skipton for her dower. The second, named Amabilla, was married to Reginald de Luce, with the honour of Egremond by the same king Henry. And the third, named Alicia de Romelic, was married to Gilbert Pipard, with Aspatrike, and the barony of Allerdaleand the liberty of Cokermouth, by the said king Henry: and afterwards by the queen to Robert de Courteny; but she died without heirs of her body.
William le Gross earl of Albemarle, had by his wife Cicilia, Harwisia; to whom succeeded William de Fortibus earle of Albemarle: to whom succeeded another William de Fortibus; to whom succeeded Avelina, who was espoused to lord Edmond brother to king Edward, and died without heirs, &c.
Reginald de Luce by Amabilla his wife had Alicia. To Amabilla succeeded Lambert de Multon: To him succeeded Thomas Multon de Egremond. And to Alicia succeeded Thomas de Luce, to whom succeeded Thomas his son, who was succeeded by Anthony his brother.

placename:- Cumberland
person:- : William the Conqueror
person:- : Todd, Hugh
person:- : Meschines, Ranulphus de
person:- : Meschines, William de
person:- : Dugdale, William, Sir
person:- : Howard, William, Lord
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Pages 169-210 are Cumberland.
Page 169:-
CUMBERLAND.
BEFORE Westmorland to the west lies Cumberland, the last county of England this way, being bounded on the north by Scotland, washed on the south and west by the Irish sea, and on the east joining to Northumberland above Westmorland. It takes its name from its inhabitants, who were true and genuine Britans, and in their own language called themselves Kumbri and Kambri. History informs us, that the Britans long resided here during the Saxon tyrany; and Marianus himself says the same thing, and calls this country Cumbrorum terra; not to mention the British names continually recurring as Caer-luel, Caer-dronoc, Pen-rith, Pen-rodoc &c. which plainly bespeak this, and are the strongest proof of my assertion.
The country, though it may seem colder by reason of its northern situation and rough with mountains, affords an agreeable variety to travellers. For after the swelling rocks and thickest mountains pregnant with all kinds of wild-fowl succeed verdant hills of rich pasturage, covered with flocks, and below them extensive plains yielding plenty of corn. Besides all these the sea which beats against the coast maintains innumerable shoals of excellent fish, and seems to reproach the inhabitants for their inattention to fishery.
...
Page 177:-
...
Having thus in a manner perlustrated the coast and interior parts of Cumberland, the east part though thin, hungry, and waste, remains to be visited. It affords only the sources of South Tine in a swampy soil, and a Roman way eight yards broad, paved with stones, and called the Maiden way, ...
...
Page 177:-
...
In the decline of the Roman empire in Britain, though this country was miserably harrassed by the Scots and Picts, it long preserved the original Britans for its inhabitants, and fell late into the power of the Saxons. But when the Saxon government was subverted by the Danish wars, it had princes of its own, styled kings of Cumberland, till the year 946, at which time as Matthew of Westminster informs us, "king Edmund, assisted by Lewellin king of Demetia, plundered Cumberland of all its wealth, and having put out the eyes of the two sons of Dunmail king of that province, gave the kingdom to Malcolm king of Scotland, to hold of him and to defend the north parts of England from the invasion of enemies by sea and land." From that time the eldest sons of the kings of Scotland were for a long while styled governors of Cum-
Page 178:-
[Cum]berland, both under the Saxons and Danes. But when England submitted to the Normans, this part of it also came into their power, and fell to the share of Radulph de Meschines, whose eldest son Ranulph was lord of Cumberland, and in right of his mother and by favour of the king earl of Chester. King Stephen to gratify the Scots restored it to them to be holden of him and the kings of England. But his successor Henry II. finding this liberality of Stephen likely to prove prejudicial to himself and kingdom, demanded Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, of the Scots. "The Scottish king, as Neubrigensis relates, wisely considering that the king of England had the advantage in this demand both by strength of arms and justice of claim, though he might have alledged the oath which he was said to have taken to his grandfather David when he received knighthood from him, honestly restored the borders aforesaid upon demand, and in return received from him the county of Huntingdon, to which he had an antient right."
Before the time of Henry VIII. there were no earls of Cumberland. He created Henry Clifford, descended from the lords Vipont, first earl of Cumberland, who by Margaret daughter of Henry Percy earl of Northumberland, had Henry 2d earl, who by his first wife daughter of Charles Brandon duke of Suffolk, had Margaret countess of Derby, by his 2d wife daughter of lord Dacre of Gillesland, two sons George and Francis. George, the 3d earl, distinguished himself in the sea-service, indefatigable and brave, and died 1605, leaving an only daughter Anne. He was succeeded by his brother Francis 4th earl, who discovers an ambition to equal the virtues of such ancestors.
This county contains 58 parish churches besides chapels.

placename:- Cumberland
other name:- Cumbrorum Terra
person:- : Kumbri; Kambri
person:- : Scots
person:- : Picts
person:- : Danes
person:- : Saxons
person:- : Edmund, King of Northumberland
person:- : Lewellin, King of Demetia
person:- : Dunmail, King of Cumberland
person:- : Malcolm, King of Scots
person:- : Normans
person:- : Meschines, Ranulph de; Chester, Earl of
person:- : Stephen
person:- : Henry II
person:- : Henry VIII
person:- : Clifford, Henry; Cumberland, Earl of
person:- : Clifford, George; Cumberland, Earl of
person:- : Pembroke, Anne, Lady
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Clarke 1787 map (Ambleside to Keswick)

Map series, lakes and roads to the Lakes, by James Clarke, engraved by S J Neele, 352 Strand, London, included in A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, published by James Clarke, Penrith, and in London etc, from 1787 to 1793.
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CUMBERLAND
The county boundary is drawn at Dunmail Raise.

placename:- Cumberland
county
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Clarke 1787 map (Ullswater)

Map series, lakes and roads to the Lakes, by James Clarke, engraved by S J Neele, 352 Strand, London, included in A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, published by James Clarke, Penrith, and in London etc, from 1787 to 1793.
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Glencoyn Beck divides the Countys
CUMBERLAND
The county name is engraved at the top of the map, and along the lake margin.

placename:- Cumberland
county
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Ull)

Series of maps, An Accurate Map of the Matchless Lake of Derwent, of the Grand Lake of Windermere, of the Beautiful Lake of Ullswater, of Broadwater or Bassenthwaite Lake, of Coniston Lake, of Buttermere, Crummock and Loweswater Lakes, and Pocklington's Island, by Peter Crosthwaite, Kendal, Cumberland now Cumbria, 1783 to 1794.
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Cumberland

placename:- Cumberland
county
date:- 1783=1794
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s; 1790s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
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IN the Time of the Romans Cumberland was Part of the large Country inhabited by the Brigantes, containing besides this County, Yorkshire, Durham, Lancashire, and Westmoreland. During the Time of the Saxon Heptarchy, it made Part of the Kingdom of Northumberland.
When it was in the Power of the Romans, it was much frequented by their Legions and Soldiers, not only to keep the Inhabitants in Order, but bordering upon their troublesome Neighbours, the Picts and Scots, they were forced continually to guard it against their Invasions; but when the Distractions of the Roman Empire caused the Legions of Britain to be call'd Home, the Scots and Picts, sensible that all Opposition was near remov'd, soon brake thro' the strong Wall, built by the Emperors Adrian and Severus, extending from Sea to Sea about 82 Miles in Length, tho' it had been not long before rebuilt, and made stronger, and now miserably harrass'd the Britons, destitute of their wonted Guard; in which almost continual Conflicts they lived, 'till the Saxons brought them, with the rest of the Kingdom, into a Subjection to them, dividing it into seven Parts, or Principalities. In this Settlement, Cumberland became a Part of the Kingdom of Northumberland, and was then called Cumberland.
This County, which is 168 Miles in Circumference, is bounded by Scotland on the N. by the Irish Sea on the W. and S. and on the E. by Part of Lancashire, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland.
It lies partly in the Dioceses of Chester and Carlisle,
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and contains about 1,040,000 Acres, and 14,825 Houses. It is not divided into Hundreds, as most other Counties are, but Wards, of which there are five, viz. South-Ward, North-Ward, West-Ward, Leath-Ward, and Eskdale-Ward, wherein are 58 Parishes, containing one City, one Borough, and 12 other Market Towns; and sends six Members to Parliament, two for the County, two for the City of Carlisle, and two for the Borough of Cockermouth.
The Air is cold and sharp, tho' not so much as might be expected from its Northern Situation, being shelter'd by Hills on the Side next Scotland. The Soil is for the most Part fruitful of Corn and Grass, the Plains affording good Plenty of the one, and the rich Mountains of the other, which are therefore always stocked with great Store of Sheep. The County affords pleasant Prospects, which would be still more agreeable, if Trees could be brought to thrive better than they generally do. The chief Commodities are Coal, Lead, Copper, Lapis Calaminaris, Black Lead, (call'd by the Inhabitants Wadd,) Fish, especially Salmon, Wild Fowl, Pearls, &c. ...
...
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...
This County has given the Title of Earl, or Duke, to the following Persons, since the Conquest:
Ranulph, or Ralph de Meschines, was the first Lord of Cumberland, by the Conqueror's Donation, and his Son
Ranulph succeeded him in that Dignity and Power; but being Heir by his Mother to the Earldom of Chester, he removed thither, and resigned the Lordship of Cumberland into the King's Hands, which King Stephen gave to Malcolm, King of Scots, to hold of him, on Condition that he should protect the N. Parts of England by Sea and Land, against the Incursions of all Enemies. From which Time
The eldest Sons of the Kings of Scotland were stiled Lord of Cumberland: But King Henry II. considering how great a Prejudice this Grant was to the Kingdom, resum'd it, and gave him the Earldom of Huntingdon: And so this Honour remain'd in the Crown 'till King Henry VIII. created
Henry Clifford, descended from the Lord Vipont, or de Vetere Ponte, Earl of Cumberland, in which Family
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it continu'd 'till the Year 1643, when Henry Lord Clifford, the then Earl of Cumberland, died at York, leaving only a Daughter, and the Times being disturbed, the Honour ceas'd for a Time, 'till King Charles I. was pleased to create his Nephew.
Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, second Son of Frederick, Prince Elector Palatine, and the Princess Elizabeth, his Wife, Duke of Cumberland, and Earl of Holderness. He died unmarried in the Year 1682, and seven Years after
Prince George of Denmark, then Consort to the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne, was created Duke of Cumberland, Earl of Kendal, and Baron of Ockingham. The present Duke of Cumberland is,
His Royal Highness Prince William, second Son of his Majesty, King George II.

placename:- Cumberland
person:- : Meschines, Ranulph de
person:- : Malcolm, King of Scotland
person:- : Clifford, Henry
person:- : Saxons
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
Cumberland sends 6 Membrs. to Parliament, containing one City, one Borough, 13 Market Towns, & 58 Parish Churches, besides Chapels.

placename:- Cumberland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
They have innumerable marks of antiquity in this county [Cumberland], as well as in that of Westmoreland, mentioned before; and if it was not, as I said before, that antiquity is not my search in this work [Tour of England and Wales], yet the number of altars, monuments, and inscriptions, is such, that it would take up a larger work than this to copy them, and record them by themselves; ...

date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Bowen 1720 (plate 259)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
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The Divisions 1 Cumberland 2 North Allerdale 3 South Allerdale 4 Leath Ward 5 Eskdale Ward
The County of CUMBERLAND is 168 Miles in Circumference contains abt. 1040000 Acres, divided in to 5 Wards, in wch. are 4 Mt. & 2 Boro. Towns, 58 Pars. & abt. 14825 Houses. The Air in this County is sharp & Cold, & a better freind to Health yn Fruit Trees, ye Soil tolerably fruitfull ye Hills for feeding & ye Valleys for Corn. It yields plenty of Fish, Flesh, Corn & Fowl with abundance of large Salmon. It has several Mines of Coal, Lead, Copper, Silver, & Lapis Calaminaris, & on ye Shore some Pearls are found among ye Muscles. In this County have been found many Roman Antiquities. This County pays in ye [Q|2] Shitt: Aid L1856:19:1.
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Fiennes 1698

Travel book, manuscript record of Journeys through England including parts of the Lake District, by Celia Fiennes, 1698.
... hereabout [Pooley Bridge?] we leave those desart and barren rocky hills, not that they are limitted to Westmorland only, for had I gone farther to the left hand on into Cumberland I should have found more such and they tell me farr worse for height and stony-nesse about White haven side and Cockermouth, so that tho' both the County's have very good land and fruitfull, so they equally partake of the bad, tho' indeed Westmorland takes its name from its abounding in moorish ground yet Cumberland has its share, and more of the hilly stony part; indeed I did observe those grounds were usually neighbours to each other, the rocks abounding in springs which distilling it self on lower ground if of a spungy soile made it marshy or lakes, and in many places very fruitfull in summer graine and grasse, but the northerly winds blow cold so long on them that they never attempt sowing their and with wheate or rhye.
date:- 1698
period:- 17th century, late
period:- 1690s

old map:- Jenner 1643

Table of distances and map, Westmerland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, by Thomas Jenner, London, 1643.
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Cumberland

placename:- Cumberland
date:- 1643
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

poem:- Drayton 1612/1622 text

Poem, Polyolbion, by Michael Drayton, published 1612, part 2 with Cumbria published by John Marriott, John Grismand, and Thomas Dewe, London, 1622.
Preceding this page is the map for Westmorland and Cumberland.
page 161; Westmorland and Cumberland:-
The thirtieth Song.
THE ARGUMENT.
page 167:-
page 168:-

placename:- Cumberland
date:- 1612; 1622
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s; 1620s

old map:- Saxton 1576

Map, Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comitatus ie Westmorland and Cumberland, scale about 5 miles to 1 inch, by Christopher Saxton, London, engraved by Augustinus Ryther, 1576; published 1579-1645.
Cumberlandia

placename:- Cumberlandia
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

source:- Lloyd 1573

Map, Angliae Regni, Kingdom of England, with Wales, scale about 24 miles to 1 inch, authored by Humphrey Lloyd, Denbigh, Clwyd, drawn and engraved by Abraham Ortelius, Netherlands, 1573.
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COMBERLAND

placename:- Comberland
date:- 1573
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
first page:-
CUMBERLAND.
CHAPTER XLI.
CUMBERLAND, the furthest North-west Province in this Realme of England, confronteth upon the South of Scotland, and is divided from that Kingdome partly by the River Kirsop, then crossing Eske, by a tract thorow Solome-Mosse, until it come to the Solway Frith, by Ptolemie called the Ituna Baye. The North-west part is neighboured by Northumberland, more East-ward with Westmerland, the South with Lancashire, and the West is wholly washed with the Irish Seas.
(2) The forme whereof is long and narrow, pointing wedge-like into the South, which part it is altogether pestred with copped-hilles, and therefore hath the name of Copland. The middle is more levell, and better inhabited, yeelding sufficient for the sustenance of man: but the North is wilde and solitary, combred with hilles, as Copland is.
(3) The ayre is piercing, and of a sharpe temperature, and would be more biting, were it not that those high hilles breake off the Northerne stormes, and cold falling snowes.
(4) Notwithstanding, rich is this Province, and with great varieties thereof is replenished: the hilles, though rough, yet smile upon their beholders, spread with sheepe and cattle, the vallies stored with grasse and corne sufficient: the Sea affordeth great store of fish, the land over-spread with varietie of fowles, ...
second page:-
...
(5) The ancient Inhabitants knowne to the Romanes, were the Brigantes, whom Ptolemie disperseth into Westmorland, Richmond, Durham, York-shire, and Lancashire. But when the Saxons had over borne the Britaines, and forced them out of the best, to seeke their resting among the vast Mountaines, these by them were entred into, where they held play with those enemies maugre their force, and from them, as Marianus doth witnesse, the land was called Cumber, of those Kumbri the Britaines. But when the State of the Saxons was fore shaken, by the Danes, this Cumberland was accounted a Kingdome itselfe; for so the Flower-gatherer of Westminster recordeth; King Edmund (saith he) with the helpe of Leoline Prince of South-Wales, wasted all Cumberland, and having put out the eyes of the two sonnes of Dunmail King of that Province, granted that Kingdome unto Malcolm King of Scots, whereof their eldest sonnes became Prefects. This Province, King Stephen, to purchase favour with the Scots, what time he stood in most need of ayd, confirmed by gift under their Crowne; which Henry the second notwithstanding, made claime unto and got, as Newbrigensis writeth, and laid it againe in the Marches of England: since when, many bickerings betwixt these Nations herein have hapned, ...
third page:-
...
(7) The chiefest Citie in this Shire is Carlile, ...
...
(10) This County, as it stood in the fronts of assaults, so was it strengthned with twentie-five Castles, and preserved with the prayers (as then was thought) of the Votaries in the houses erected at Carlile, Lenecost, Wetherall, Holme, Daker, and Saint Bees. These with others were dissolved by
fourth page:-
King Henry the eight, and their revenues shadowed under his Crowne: but the Province being freed from charge of subsidie, is not therefore divided into Huundreds in the Parliament Rowles, whence we have taken the divisions of the rest: onely this is observed, that therein are seated nine Maraket-Townes, fiftie eight Parish-Churches, besides many other Chappels of ease.
person:- : Brigantes
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century; 1620s

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2008

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