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placename:- Hadrian's Wall
parish Bowness parish, once in Cumberland
parish Burgh by Sands parish, once in Cumberland
parish Beaumont parish, once in Cumberland
parish Stanwix Rural parish, once in Cumberland
parish Irthington parish, once in Cumberland
parish Burtholme parish, once in Cumberland
parish Waterhead parish, once in Cumberland
parish Upper Denton parish, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
roman wall
coordinates:- NY6166
10Km square:- NY26
10Km square:- NY25
10Km square:- NY35
10Km square:- NY45
10Km square:- NY46
10Km square:- NY56
10Km square:- NY66
county:- Northumberland

1Km square NY6166

photograph

Hadrian's Wall -- Bowness and Burgh by Sands etc -- Cumbria -- Northumberland / -- The Wall at Gilsland. -- NY63056627 (at) -- 21.3.2008
photograph

Hadrian's Wall -- Bowness and Burgh by Sands etc -- Cumbria -- Northumberland / -- The Wall at Gilsland. -- NY63056627 (at) -- 21.3.2008

text:- Mason 1907 (edn 1930)

Page 26:-
...
... Cumberland contains part of the Roman wall, which ends on the shores of the Solway Frith. ...

other name:- Roman Wall
date:- 1907
period:- 1900s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
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county:- Cumberland
county:- Northumberland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 101:-
...
... The city [Carlisle] is well supplied with public walks lying around in various directions: these the tourist should by all means perambulate, particularly those on the northern banks of the river, along which passed the Roman Wall. ...
Page 115:-
of Denton and Lanercost. The antiquarian will prefer travelling from Lanercost to Gilsland, along the heights of the northern bank, as he will have an opportunity of examining the Roman Wall, more especially at Birdoswald, the Amblogana of the Romans, where the mass of the wall is visible, though its facings are gone.

placename:- Roman Wall, The
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Baker 1802

Perspective road map with sections in Lancashire, Westmorland, and Cumberland through Kendal and Penrith ending at Carlisle, by J Baker, London 1802.
Page 27:-
... The famous Picts Wall also crossed the kingdom by this place [Carlisle].

placename:- Picts Wall
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Gough's Additions, after some descriptive paragraphs, give Mr Horsley's account of the wall in Britannia Romana. These detailed notes include assessments of the appearance of the remains at various places.
Page 216:-
...
The following account of the present state of Hadrian's vallum, and the wall of Severus is taken from Mr. Horsley's Britannia Romana: c.9. p.135.
"I shall reduce these remains to four degrees of appearance: As to Hadrian's vallum, I would call it the highest or fourth degree, if in any part the present state could be supposed to be nearly equal to what it originally was, but this I think never is the case; the first and lowest degree is, when there are any certain visible remains or vestiges, though not very large; and the second and third are the intertmediate degrees, as they approach nearer to the highest or lowest. But in the stone wall I call that the fourth degree, where any of the original regular courses are remaining, and usually name the number of courses. Where the original stones remain upon the spot, though not in their regular order, I call it the third degree; where the rubbish is high and distinct, though covered with earth, or grown over with grass, I call it the second; and the first is where there are any remaining vestiges of the wall though faint and obscure.
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 229:-
...
For the better representing the present appearance of the ruins of the wall, we have copied Mr. Horsley's general map of the whole wall, which will be found to comprehend all the castella on it expressed in his particular maps of the parts of it upon a larger scale, as well as to represent the course of Hadrian's vallum and its parallellism with that of Severus. The former is marked by the fainter line accompanying the latter expressed by the blacker line.
Severus's wall has manifestly terminated in a square fort above a furlong to the east of a mansion called Cousin's house, where are ruins of a Roman station and town still very discernble, though the site has been plowed, and is now a rich meadow. The site is called Well lawes, q.d. Wall hills, corresponding with Segedunum (a station). Hence it passes a stile, where it makes a little turn. through the outer court of Cousin's house, by the Beehouses, Walker, or Wall kier, Byker hill; descends to Ewsburn, the Red burns, and Pandon gate at New castle (a station). After passing through that town it appears again out at the west gate at the Quarry house. Thence proceeds to Elswick mill, Benwel (a station), Denton, Chapel houses, Walbottle, Newburn deen, Throcklow, Heddon (a station), Rutchester (a station), Harlow hill, Halton sheels, Wall houses, Halton Chester (a station), Watling street gate, Portgate, St. Oswald, North Tine river, Walwick or East Chesters (a station), Walwick, Towerstay, Carrawburgh (a station), Shewen sheels, Buisy gap, House steeds (a station), Haltwistle burn, Little Chester (a station), Great Chesters (a station), Cockmount hill, Waltown, Wintergap cross, Carrvoran (a station), Tippal river to Thirwall castle, Stonegap, Willoford, Burdoswald (a station), Midgham foot, Wallbours, the Banks, Hare-hill (where Mr. Horsley measured the wall three feet and a half high, probably within half a yard of its original height), Birchshaw, Randilands, Waltown, Cambeck, or Castlesteeds (a station), Irthing, New town, Comeranton, Old wall, Wall head, Wallby, Tarraby, Stanwick (a station), cross the Eden, on the north side of which both walls are mostly obscure, but the ditch visible at Beaumont. They both run to Brugh (a station). Whether Hadrian's wall was continued beyond Drumburgh (a station) is uncertain, but Severus's may be traced to Boulness (a station).
Page 230:-
The stations per lineam valli, 23 in number, enumerated in the Notitia, were as follows:
The five last form a line of secondary stations to the south of the wall.
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 211:-
Pages 211-230 are The Wall
THE VALLUM, OR PICTS WALL.
THE upper edge of Cumberland is crossed by the famous wall, the boundary of the Roman province, called by the antient writers the Vallum Barbaricum, the Praetentura, and Clusura *, by Dio, Δια[ ]ειχισμα, by Herodian χωμα, by Antoninus, Cassiodorus, and others, Vallum, by Bede Murus, by the Britans Gual Sever, Gal Sever, and Mur Sever, by the Scots Scottinwaith, by the English and the neighbourhood the Picts Wall, or Pehits Wall, the Keepe Wall, and, by way of eminence, The Wall.
When by their valour under Providence the ambition of the Romans crowned with a train of unexpected successes had so extended their empire on every side that they began almost to be jealous of their own greatness, the emperors thought it adviseable to set some bounds to it, considering it as a piece of good policy, "to set some bounds to their greatness, as the Heavens have their proper extent and the sea its limits." These bounds were, according to circumstances of places, either natural as the sea, large rivers, mountains, desarts; or artificial, as lines, viz. ditches, castles, towers, barricadoes of trees, ramparts of earth and walls, along which garrisons were stationed against the barbarians. Hence in the Novellae of Theodosius we read, "Our ancestors contrived the wall on the border to defend against the inroads of the barbarians all the territory comprehended under the Roman allegiance." On these borders soldiers called borderers were quartered in border castles and towns in time of peace: but when there was reason to fear an invasion of the neighbourhood, part of them were staioned in the lands in the country of the barbarians to defend the lands, and part made inroads into the enemy's frontier to watch their motions, and attack them when opportunity offered †.
The Romans in this island seeing the remote parts of Britain, where the soil and air were less favourable, were inhabited by the barbarious Caledonian Britans, the reduction of whom would cost much trouble, and be attended with little advantage, established at various times various Praetenturae to bound and defend the province. The first seems to have been fixed by Julius Agricola when he garrisoned the narrow tract of ground between ‡ Bodotria and Glotta, which was presently after fortified.
Hadrian, to whom the God Terminus gave way when he, either through envy of Trajan's glory, who had extended the empire to the utmost, or through fear, retired above 80 miles in this island, formed the second Praetentura. He, says Spartianus, drew a wall for 80 miles to separate the "Romans and Barbarians." From the following words of this author we may collect that this wall was built "of great piles driven deep into the ground, and bound together like a mural § fence." this the wall now under consideration, which runs 80 miles, having on it PONS AELIA, CLASSIS AELIA, COHORS AELIA, ALA SABINIANA, so called after AElius Adrianus and Sabina his wife. The Scotish historian also, who wrote the Rota Temporum, says "Hadrian was the first who drew a rampart of prodgious bulk of sods pared off the ground as high as a mountain, with a very deep ditch in front from the mouth of Tine to the river Esc, from the German ocean to the Irish sea." ...
...
When the Caledonian Britans in the reign of Commodus had broken through this, Severus, slighting that immense country beyond it, drew a fortification across the island from Eden mouth, or Solway frith, to Tine mouth, in the same place, if I mistake not, where Hadrian made his wall of piles, and with me agrees Hector Boetius. "Severus, says he, commanded Hadrian's wall to be repaired, stone battlements to be added, and towers at such intervals that the sound of a trumpet might be heard from one to the other, even though the wind was contrary;" and in another place, "Our chronicles relate that the wall began by Adrian was [completed by Severus]"
The frontiers of provinces were called Clusurae from excluding the enemy, and Praetenturae because praetended or drawn before the enemy. See Pichaeus in Adversar. I. c.14.
...
Page 212:-
... Nor has it any other name than Vallum in Antoninus and the Notitia, and it is called in British Guall Sever. In confirmation of this let us hear Ethelwerd the oldest writer after Bede, speaking of Severus. "He drew a ditch in the island aforementioned crossways from sea to sea, and built within it a wall with towers and battlements." He afterwards calls it Fossa Severia, Severus' ditch, as do the antient Saxon Annals, [Severus Brytenland mid dic forgyrd fram sea oth sea], q.d. Severus inclosed Britain with a dike from sea to sea; and others of later date, [Severus on Brytene gethorht theal of turfum fram sea to sea.] Severus in Britain made a wall of turf from sea to sea. Malmesbury also calls it "the famous and well-known ditch." In which place, near 200 years after, was built a wall of stone, of which hereafter. ...
... ...
Page 214:-
...
But to follow the track of the wall more exactly. It begins at BLATUM BULGIUM or Bulness on the Irish sea, and proceeds along Eden frith by Burgh upon sands to LUGUVALLUM or Carlisle, where it crosses the Ituna or Eden. Thence it runs on above the river Irthing, crossing the little meandering river Cambecke where are great remains of a fort. After crossing the rivers Irthing and Poltrosse it enters Northumberland, and continuing among the chains of mountains along the river called South Tine (except where the river North Tine makes an interruption in it, where was antiently a bridge), advances quite to the German ocean, at (sic) will be shown when we come to Northumberland.
The whole chapter in Britannia is about Hadrian's Wall, and is not duplicated in this Place Record; read the transcription of the source. There is discussion of the several walls and ditches, their lengths, construction, and so on.

placename:- Wall, The
other name:- Vallum Barbaricum
other name:- Picts Wall
other name:- Praetentura
other name:- Clusura
other name:- Murus
other name:- Gual Sever
other name:- Gal Sever
other name:- Mur Sever
other name:- Scottinwaith
other name:- Pehits Wall
other name:- Keepe Wall
other name:- Fossa Severia
other name:- Severus's Ditch
other name:- Murus Famosus
person:- : Ethelward
person:- : Malmesbury, William of
person:- : Antoninus
person:- : cassiodorus
person:- : Bede
person:- : Britans
person:- : Scots
person:- : Romans
person:- : Theodosius
person:- : Hadrian
person:- : Severus
person:- : Agricola
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 173:-
... Bulnesse ... A mile beyond this, as may be seen by the foundations when the tide is out, begin those famous Roman works the Vallum and Wall, formerly the boundary of the Roman province, erected to keep out the barbarians, who, in these parts, were continually, as the writer says, barking at the Roman empire. I was at first surprised at their raising such great fortifications here, when there is so large an aestuary for near eight miles; but I find now, that when the tide is out the water is so low, that robbers and marauders might easily ford over. ...
Page 174:-
... This Picts wall afterwards erected on the Vallum of Severus is still visible at Stanwicks, a little village, a little beyond the river Eden, over which is now a wooden bridge, and crosses the river overagainst the castle, where in the bed of the river are still remians of it, huge stones. Pomponius Mela tells us, that Lugus or Lucus signified a tower among the antient Celts, who spoke the same language with the Britans. What Antoninus calls LUGU AUGUSTI he names TURRIS AUGUSTI, so that Lugu-vallum is and signifies the tower or fort on the wall. ...
...
Page 176:-
...
... Through this [Gilsland] the wall or rampart of Severus, that noblest monument in Britain, runs almost strait from Carlisle, east through the village of Stanwicks, Scalby, ... and from thence the little river Cambec passes under the wall, ... Below the wall it falls into the river Irthing, where is Irthington, ... and here at Castle steed are to be seen great ruins. Near it is Brampton, a mean market-town, which I take for BREMETURACUM ad lineam valli, being scarce a mile from the wall, where antiently was stationed the 1st cohort of the Tungri from Germany, and in the decline of the Roman empire under the Dux Britanniarum a Cuneus Armaturarum. These were horse completely armed, but whether these Armaturae were duplares or simplares, Vegetius leaves uncertain. The former, according to the style of that time, was so called from having a double, and other from having only single allowance of provision. ...
...
Page 177:-
... on the wall [is] Burd Oswald. Below this last, where the Picts wall crosses the river Irthing on arches, was the station of the cohors prima AElia Dacorum, at a place now called Willoford, ...
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 187:-
...
Sir John [Aglionby?] adds 1739 in his letter to Mr. Gale; "... Several walls are here very visible for a mile or two, in some places levelled, in others eight, nine, and ten feet high. The facing square stones, of which 1000 cart loads remain that have not been used for houses or hedges. These were probably brought from the Caledonian side, where the county abounds for several miles with it and limestone. The inside is generally irregular, and sometimes in the herring bone fashion: the cement a mixture of lime and small gravel, with some shells beat together, and poured in with water from the top till the interstices were filled up. I have followed this method, which effectually keeps out air. I cannot think ... nor that the Roman wall, very conspicuous near this place, run further into the sea, but rather ended there, the sea having in the Roman time run higher by several feet than now, for even at Cramond, four miles above Leith, was a Roman harbour, where the sea sometimes washes." ...
person:- : Aglionby, John, Sir
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 195:-
...
... The Roman wall is very visible here [Stanwix]. The ditch distinct on the west of the village between it and the Eden, seems to have been Severus's, whose wall forms the north rampart of the station. The ruins of the wall are visible on the brink of the precipice. ...
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
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The Picts Wall Demolish'd
double line, dotted, with ?crenellations
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double line, dotted, with ?crenellations
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The Picts Wall Demolish'd
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placename:- Picts Wall, The
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
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...
When it [Cumberland area] was in the Power of the Romans, it was much frequented by their Legions and Soldiers, not only to keep the Inhabitants in Order, but bordering upon their troublesome Neighbours, the Picts and Scots, they were forced continually to guard it against their Invasions; but when the Distractions of the Roman Empire caused the Legions of Britain to be call'd Home, the Scots and Picts, sensible that all Opposition was near remov'd, soon brake thro' the strong Wall, built by the Emperors Adrian and Severus, extending from Sea to Sea about 82 Miles in Length, tho' it had been not long before rebuilt, and made stronger, and now miserably harrass'd the Britons, destitute of their wonted Guard; ...
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The famous Picts-Wall, of which some Remains still appear in this County, and which was the Boundary of the Romans Jurisdiction in this Isle, called in Latin, Vallum Barbaricum, was erected on this Occasion: The Romans having conquer'd the most fruitful and pleasant Parts of Britain, and finding that the more remote they went towards the N. the more barbarous were the People, who had nothing desirable in them, contrived, according to their Custom in other Conquests, to raise Fences, such as might secure and bound the province. It was made in the Fashion of a mural Hedge, of large Stakes driven deep into the Ground, and wreathed together with Wattles, strengthened with huge Heaps of Turf and Earth, and a deep Ditch, extending from the German to the Irish Ocean.

placename:- Picts Wall
person:- : Hadrian; Adrian
person:- : Severus
person:- : Romans
person:- : Picts
person:- : Scots
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
... from below this town [Carliel] the famous Picts Wall began, which cross'd the whole island to Newcastle upon Tyne, ...

placename:- Picts Wall
date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Bowen 1720 (plate 162)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
Bolness ... formerly a Roman Station, ... within a Mile of which begins the Picts Wall, erected by the Romans for the defence of the Britains against the Picts, & afterwds. repaired by Theodosius Father & Son, Twas begun in this Place by the Emperour Adrian, & enlarged by Severus, made of Turf & fortified with a Ditch, extending to Newcastle upon Tyne;- about 80 Miles in length, upon this Wall were Castles & Towers erected where Soldiers were garisoned, & in the inside were fixed Brazon Trumpets or Pipes, laid along to call from one Station to another. Here are frequently found Roman Coins Pavements &c. & not long since was taken up a Figure of a Mercury or Victory, which is now in the Custody of John Aglionby Esqr. a Learned & curious Gentleman.

placename:- Picts Wall
person:- : Theodosius
person:- : Severus
person:- : Adrian
person:- : Aglionby, John
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Bowen 1720 (plate 232)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
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Part of ye Picts Wall
Marked on south side of road; mile 53.

placename:- Picts Wall
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Cmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
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The Picts Wall
Castelated wall.
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Ogilby 1675 (plate 86)

This might be a fort or milecastle rather than the wall itself.
Road book, Britannia, strip road maps, with sections in Westmorland and Cumberland etc, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, by John Ogilby, London, 1675; and a general map of England and Wales.
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In mile 53, Cumberland.
Part of the Picts Wall
wall alongside the left of the road.

placename:- Picts Wall
date:- 1675
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

old map:- Jansson 1646

Map, Cumbria et Westmoria, or Cumberland and Westmorland, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Jansson, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1646; published 1646-1724.
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THE PICTS WAL.
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THE PICTS WAL.
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Drawn as a squarely built wall; from Bowness on Solway, through Carlisle, then north and east into Northumberland.

placename:- Picts Wall
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1646
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

poem:- Drayton 1612/1622 text

Poem, Polyolbion, by Michael Drayton, published 1612, part 2 with Cumbria published by John Marriott, John Grismand, and Thomas Dewe, London, 1622.
in Northumberland, page 158:-
in Northumberland, page 159:-
page 167:-

placename:- Pictswall
person:- : Hadrian; Adrian
person:- : Severus
person:- : Romans
date:- 1612; 1622
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s; 1620s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Cmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
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crenellated wall, from Bowness-on-Solway, through Carlisle, north and east into Northumberland
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Saxton 1576

Map, Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comitatus ie Westmorland and Cumberland, scale about 5 miles to 1 inch, by Christopher Saxton, London, engraved by Augustinus Ryther, 1576; published 1579-1645.
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West end of Hadrian's Wall; faint dashed line.
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THE WALL OF THE PICTES
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Continues eastward.

placename:- Wall of the Pictes, The
county:- Cumberlandia
county:- Northumbria
wall
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
PIECE OF HADRIAN'S WALL IN VICARAGE GARDEN / / / UPPER DENTON / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / I / 78076 / NY6327066241
courtesy of English Heritage
Roman Wall. Circa 124-130 AD. Calciferous sandstone facing stones, with rubble infill. Narrow Wall or Broad Wall foundations, approximately 200 metres in length and 5 courses high in places. Excavated 1894 and scheduled AM.
district:- Carlisle
listed building
coordinates:- NY63276624
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
second page:-
(6) Many memorable Antiquities remaine and have beene found in this County: for it being the Confines of the Romans Possessions, was continually secured by their Garrisons, where remaine at this day parts of that admirable wall built by Severus: also another Fortification from Werkinton to Elne Mouth, upon the Sea-shore towards Ireland, by Stiloco raised, when under Theodosius he suppres-
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century; 1620s

old map:- Stukeley 1723

Map of roman roads through Britain, scale about 55 miles to 1 inch, derived from the Antonine Itineraries, plotted by William Stukeley, 1723, published London, 1724.
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From Bowness to the east coast.
HADRIANI VALLUM

placename:- Hadriani Vallum
date:- 1723
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Horsley 1732

NB: Horsley's ideas are not all accepted today.
Map, Britannia Antiqua, by Johanne Horsley, 1732. (nb this is tentative data)
thumbnail HOR1Cm, button to large image
Vallum Hadriani

placename:- Vallum Hadriani
date:- 1732
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Hadrian's Wall -- Bowness and Burgh by Sands etc -- Cumbria -- Northumberland / -- The Wall near Birdoswald. -- NY615662 (at) -- 21.3.2008

Odd books; this is not a proper bibliography.
Birley, A R: 1963: Hadrian's Wall: HMSO (London)
Birley, E: 1961: Research on Hadrian's Wall: Wilson, Titus (Kendal, Westmorland)
Bruce, J Collingwood: 1909 (6th edn) & 1965 (12th edn): Handbook to the Roman Wall: Reid, Andrew (Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland)
Collingwood, R G: 1921: Hadrian's Wall, a History of the Problem: Journal of Roman Studies: vol.2: pp.37-66
Haynes, H W: 1890: Roman Wall in Britain: Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York: vol,23: pp.157-210
Hodgkin, T: 1896: Literary History of the Roman Wall: Archaeologia Aeliana: series 2 vol.18: pp.83-108
Mann, J C: 1969: Northern Frontier of Britain from Hadrian to Honorius: University of Durham:: ancient texts
Ordnance Survey: 1964: Map of Hadrian's Wall
Shannon, William D: 2007: Murus ille famosus & That Famous Wall: CWAAS:: ISBN 978 1 873124 45 1
Wilson, Roger A: 1975: Roman Remains in Britain: Book Club Associates

mapping:- roman fort, Wallsend
-- SegedunumMilecastle 1, Northumberland
Milecastle 2, Northumberland
Milecastle 3, Northumberland
Milecastle 4, Northumberland
roman fort, Newcastle upon Tyne
-- Pons AeliiMilecastle 5, Northumberland
Milecastle 6, Northumberland
roman fort, Benwell
-- CondercumMilecastle 7, Northumberland
Milecastle 8, Northumberland
Milecastle 9, Northumberland
Milecastle 10, Northumberland
Milecastle 11, Northumberland
Milecastle 12, Northumberland
Milecastle 13, Northumberland
roman fort, Rudchester
-- VindobalaMilecastle 14, Northumberland
Milecastle 15, Northumberland
Milecastle 16, Northumberland
Milecastle 17, Northumberland
Milecastle 18, Northumberland
Milecastle 19, Northumberland
Milecastle 20, Northumberland
Milecastle 21, Northumberland
roman fort, Halton Chesters
-- OnnumMilecastle 22, Northumberland
Milecastle 23, Northumberland
Milecastle 24, Northumberland
Milecastle 25, Northumberland
Milecastle 26, Northumberland
Milecastle 27, Northumberland
roman bridge, Chesters
-- River North Tyneroman fort, Chesters
-- CilurnumMilecastle 28, Northumberland
Milecastle 29, Northumberland
Milecastle 30, Northumberland
Milecastle 31, Northumberland
roman fort, Carrawburgh
-- BrocolitiaMilecastle 32, Northumberland
Milecastle 33, Northumberland
Milecastle 34, Northumberland
Milecastle 35, Northumberland
Milecastle 36, Northumberland
roman fort, Housesteads
-- VercoviciumMilecastle 37, Northumberland
Milecastle 38, Northumberland
Milecastle 39, Northumberland
Milecastle 40, Northumberland
Milecastle 41, Northumberland
Milecastle 42, Northumberland
roman fort, Great Chesters
-- AesicaMilecastle 43, Northumberland
Milecastle 45, Northumberland
Milecastle 44, Northumberland
Milecastle 46, Northumberland
Milecastle 47, Northumberland
Milecastle 48, Upper Denton
-- NY63056626
turret 48A, Upper Denton
-- NY62766639
-- NY62646640
turret 48B, Upper Denton
roman bridge, Willowford
-- River IrthingMilecastle 49, Waterhead
roman fort, Birdoswald
-- Voredaturret 49B, Waterhead
Milecastle 50, Waterhead
Milecastle 51, Waterhead
turret 51A, Waterhead
turret 51B, Waterhead
Milecastle 52, Waterhead
signal tower, Waterhead
turret 52A, Waterhead
Milecastle 53, Burtholme
Milecastle 54, Burtholme
Milecastle 55, Burtholme
Milecastle 58, Irthington
Milecastle 59, Irthington
Milecastle 60, Irthington
Milecastle 61, Stanwix Rural
Milecastle 64, Stanwix Rural
Milecastle 65, Stanwix Rural
roman fort, Stanwix
-- Uxelodunumroman bridge, Stanwix
-- River EdenMilecastle 66, Stanwix Rural
Milecastle 67, Beaumont
Milecastle 68, Beaumont
Milecastle 69, Beaumont
Milecastle 70, Beaumont
Milecastle 71, Beaumont
roman fort, Burgh by Sands
-- AballavaMilecastle 72, Burgh by Sands
Milecastle 73, Burgh by Sands
Milecastle 74, Burgh by Sands
Milecastle 75, Bowness
Milecastle 76, Bowness
roman fort, Drumburgh
-- ConcavataMilecastle 77, Bowness
Milecastle 78, Bowness
Milecastle 79, Bowness
roman fort, Bowness-on-Solway
-- Maia

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2008

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