button to main menu   Old Cumbria Gazetteer
placename:- Ingleborough
other name:- Ingleborough Hill
county:- North Yorkshire
hill
Altitude 2375 feet
coordinates:- SD74127458
10Km square:- SD77

1Km square SD7474

photograph

Ingleborough -- North Yorkshire / -- 26.6.2011

old map:- Balderston c1890 map

Map, the hills in the Ingleton area, engraved by Goodall and Suddick, Leeds, in Ingleton, Bygone and Present, by Robert R and Margaret Balderston, published about 1890.
thumbnail BS1SD77M, button to large image
INGLEBOROUGH

placename:- Ingleborough
Altitude 2373 feet
date:- 1890
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

descriptive text:- Clarke 1858

Report, Account of the Observations and Calculations of the Principal Triangulation, by Captain Alexander R Clarke, published by the Ordnance Survey, London, 1858.
INGLEBOROUGH, 1807. This station is on top of the mountain of this name, 5 miles east of Ingleton Village, in the West Riding of Yorkshire; it is about 60 yards from the highest part of the an old building towards the north-east, which building is on the nearest brink of Ingleborough from the station south-westward.
Altitude above mean sea level:-
2373.4 feet
Position, latitude and longitude, degrees minutes decimal seconds
54 9 58.73 / 2 23 45.87

placename:- Ingleborough
Altitude 2373.4 feet
date:- 1858
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02SD77, button to large image
Ingleboro Hill
Hill hachuring.

placename:- Ingleboro Hill
county:- Yorkshire
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (8th edn 1849)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
image OT80P202, button   goto source.
Page 202:-
...
INGLEBOROUGH.- This noble mountain is a prominent feature in the scenery of this portion of the country. From every part its table land is seen cleaving the skies; and an ascent upon its summit, on a clear day, is one of the most delightful excursions that can be undertaken. It stands upon a base of at least thirty miles in circumference, and its highest elevation is 2361 feet above the level of the sea. The views from the top are splendid. The whole extent of country from the north to the south, with the Irish Sea in the west, can be distinctly traced as in a map. In the north-west, the confused heaps of mountains in the Lake district, with their grotesque outlines, terminate the prospect, at a distance of 50 miles. Westwards, it is closed in by the blending of sea and sky. Southwards, after following the indented shores of the Irish Sea, the Welsh mountains lift their broken summits across the horizon. In the east and north-east, black and irregular hills, and deeply-indented valleys, soon terminate the prosect. The plain on the top is about a mile round; and near the western edge is a tower, on the spot formerly occupied by a fire-beacon. It was dignified by the name of a 'Hospice.' Though it has only been built about 30 years, it is now nearly in ruins. Several springs rise near the summit, which generally lose themselves in deep chasms in the sides, the most remarkable of which is Mier Gill. There are
image OT80P203, button   goto source.
Page 203:-
a number of cavities all over the mountain, resembling inverted cones; the most remarkable is 'Barefoot Wives' Hole,' a large funnel-shaped pit, 50 yards in diameter, and about 26 yards deep. It is always dry, the water which may flow into it being swallowed amongst the loose stones at the bottom. These pits are said to be similar to those found on the Mounts Etna and Vesuvius. Ingleborough, or 'The Station of Fire,' has doubtless been, in the time of the Romans, a place of defence, and a beacon of 'smoke by day and fire by night' to communicate the intelligence of any irruption or insurrection to the surrounding castelli and encampments.
   Soft twilight hues are blending o'er thee now,
   Hill of my native vale; 'mid cloudless skies
   Thy giant cliffs in peaceful grandeur rise,
   And the light mists are wreathed round thy brow;
   Erewhile the thunder cloud's abiding place
   Where closed the elements in fearful strife -
   Yet of its ravages the tempest rife
   With desolation, there has left no trace
   Distinguishable 'neath the purple vest
   Of Ev'ning, now thy form enveloping.
   Like thine, the Wanderer's eve with peace be blest,
   The troubles o'er Life's dark day chequering:
   And Hope to cheer him, still in mercy given,
   Then gently guide him to her native heaven.[1]
P.
...
[1] For this and the preceding Sonnet on Ravenwray, we are indebted to a Reverend Vicar - a school-fellow, class-fellow, and, through life, a dear friend of ours - who lived beloved - close by the scenery he so well portrays - and died alike lamented by all, high and low, rich and poor. He was the only man we have known who had, what is vulgarly called, 'the good word' of every body. To him we are also beholden for the description of the Norman Font in Ingleton Church, as well as for being instrumental in the bringing out of a drawing of it by a Yorkshire artist, Mr. Binns, of Halifax - as accurate as his portraits: we can give it no higher panegyric.

other name:- Station of Fire
date:- 1849
period:- 19th century, early

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
image OT01P078, button   goto source.
Page 78:-
STATION I.- SCAWFELL highest point, THE PIKES.
Latitude 54° 27′ 24″ N. Longitude 3° 12′ W. Height 3160 feet.
image OT01P078, button   goto source.
Page 78:-
STATION II.- SKIDDAW.
Latitude 54° 39′ 12″ N. Longitude 3° 8′ 9″ W. Height 3022 feet.
image OT01P079, button   goto source.
Page 79:-
STATION III.- HELVELLYN.
Latitude 54° 31′ 43″ N. Longitude 3° 0′ 24″ W. Height 3070 feet.
image OT01P079, button   goto source.
Page 79:-
STATION IV.- CONISTON OLD MAN.
Latitude 54° 22′ 20″ N. Longitude 3° 6′ 34″ W. Height 2577 feet.
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old print:- Clarke 1787

Bearing from line Penrith Beacon to Helvellyn on topograph = -46 degrees;
bearing calculated from grid references = -69 degrees.
Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
thumbnail CL18, button to large image
Ingleborough in Yorkshire
circle

placename:- Ingleborough
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P219, button   goto source.
Addendum; Mr Gray's Journal, 1769
Page 219:-
...
From the leads of the tower [Hornby Castle] ... Ingleborough, which I had seen before distinctly at Lancaster to north-east, was completely wrapped in clouds, all but its summit; which might have easily been mistaken for a long black cloud too, fraught with an approaching storm. ... ... Ingleton, ... is a pretty village, situate very high, and yet in a valley, at the foot of that huge monster of nature, Ingleborough: ...
image WS21P221, button   goto source.
Page 221:-
...
Oct. 14. Leaving [Settle] ... I saw at once the three famous hills of this county, Ingleborough, Pennygant, and Pendle; the first is esteemed the highest, and their features are not to be described, but by the pencil.
image WS21P241, button   goto source.
Tour to the Caves in the West Riding of Yorkshire, late 18th century
Page 241:-
... Ingleborough, whose head was wrapt in a cloud, stood the farthest to the south in the rank of the mountains which faced us. ... [from Kirkby Lonsdale]
image WS21P251, button   goto source.
Page 251:-
...
If the tourist would proceed immediately to Chapel-in-the-Dale, ... which will lead him, by some houses, down to the chapel, in the middle of the vale between Whernside and Ingleborough.
image WS21P253, button   goto source.
Page 253:-
[at Ingleton] ... The church-yard, ... commands a fine view of the vale of Lonsdale, ... On the back-ground are the lofty mountains of Gragareth, Whernside, and Ingleborough, the summits of which, when they are not enveloped in the clouds, can scarcely be seen for their high intervening bases. When the top of Ingleborough is covered with a thick white mist (or, as the country people say, when he puts on his night-cap) there are often strong gusts, called helm winds, blowing from thence to that part of the country which adjoins to its base. The like observation is made, by the mariners, of the table-land of the Cape of Good Hope, on the coast of Africa. They are called helm winds, from their blowing from the cloud or helmet that covers the head of the mountains.- ... [2]
[2] The writer of this Tour to the Caves was informed of a deep and curious chasm on the western extremity of the base of Ingleborough, about the village of Caldecoates, about a mile or two from Ingleton; but as he did not see it himself, he has not attempted a description of it from tradition.
image WS21P261, button   goto source.
Page 261:-
...
... proceeded [from Weathercoat cave] to another, called Douk-Cove, about a mile south, on the other side of the turnpike road, towards the foot of Ingleborough, whose height now appeared to great advantage from the nature of our own elevated situation. ...
image WS21P262, button   goto source.
Page 262:-
We were now on the base on which Ingleborough stands, [1] and greatly elevated above all the western country. Our distance from the bottom, where the steep ascent of this high mountain begins, was about a mile, in a direct horizontal line over rocks and pits. The fineness and clearness of the day, however, induced us to ascend its side, and gain its summit. Though we had many a weary and slippery step, we thought ourselves amply repaid, when we got to the top, with the amusement we received in viewing the several extensive and diversified prospects, and in making our observations, as botanists and natural historians, on its productions and contents. All the country betwixt us and the sea, to the extent of forty, fifty, and sixty miles, from the north-west, by the west, to the south-west, lay stretched out beneath us, like a large map, with the roads, rivers, villages, towns, seats, hills and vales, capes and bays, in succession. Elevation is a great leveller; all the hills and little mountains in the country before us, appeared sunk in our eyes, and in the same plain with the adjacent meadows. To the north-west, the prospect was terminated, at the distance of forty or fifty miles, by a chain of rugged mountains in Westmorland, Lancashire, and Cumberland, which appeared as barriers against the fury of the ocean. To the west, the Irish Sea extends as far as the eye can penetrate, except where the uniformity of the watery prospect is interrupted by the isles of Man and Anglesey. The blue mountains in Wales terminated our further progress, after we had traced out the winding of the coast all the way from Lancaster, by Preston and Liverpool. A curious deceptio visus presented itself: all the vales between us and the sea appeared lower than its surface, owing to the sky and earth both apparently tending to a line drawn from the eye parallel to the horizon, where they at last appeared to meet. To the east and north, the prospect was soon
[1] The word Ingleborough seems to be derived from the Saxon word ingle, which signifies a lighted fire; and borough, or burgh, which comes originally from the Greek word purgos, and signifies a watch tower (the labials p and b being often changed into each other) for here a beacon is erected, on which a fire used to be made for a signal of alarm in times of rebellion or invasion.
image WS21P263, button   goto source.
Page 263:-
terminated by a number of black, irregular, chaotic mountains; which, by their indentations and winding summits, gave us reason to believe they contained habitable vales between them. Their sides afford a hardy and wholesome pasture for sheep, and their bowels contain rich mines of lead, some of which are wrought with great advantage to the proprietors.
The immense base on which Ingleborough stands, is between twenty and thirty miles in circumference. The rise is in some places even and gradual; and in others, as to the north and west, it is rugged, and almost perpendicular. The top is plain and horizontal, being almost a mile round, having the ruins of an old wall about it, from which some ingenious antiquaries endeavour to prove it has once been a Roman station, and place of great defence. Of late years it has never been frequented by any, except shepherds, and the curious-in-prospects, and the neighbouring country people, who resorted to the horse races, which were formerly annually held on its top. On the western edge there are the remains of what the country people call the beacon, some three or four yards high, ascended by a flight of steps. The ruins of a little watch-house is also adjoining. No doubt, in time of wars, insurrections, and tumults, and particularly during the incursions of the Scots, a fire was made on this beacon, to give the alarm to the country round about.- The soil on the top is so dry and barren, that it affords little grass, the rock being barely covered with earth: a spongy moss is all the vegetable that thrives in this lofty region. The stones on the summit, and for a great way down, are of the sandy gritty sort, with freestone slate amongst them: upon the base the rocks are all limestone, to an enormous depth. Near the top indeed, on the east side, is a stratum of limestone, like the Derbyshire marble, full of entrochi. Several springs have their origin near the summit, particularly one on the north side, of pure and well-tasted water, called Fair-weather Sykes, which runs down by the side of a sheep-fence wall into a chasm called Meir Gill. All the other springs, as well as this, when they come to the limestone base, are swallowed
image WS21P264, button   goto source.
Page 264:-
up, and after running perhaps a mile underground, make their appearance once again in the surrounding vales, and then wind in various courses to the Lune or the Ribble, which empty themselves into the Irish Sea.
A naturalist cannot but observe a number of conical holes, with their vertexes downwards, not only all over the base of Ingleborough, but particularly a row near the summit. They are from two to four or five yards in diameter, and from two to three or four yards deep, except Barefoot-wives-hole (hereafter-mentioned) which is much larger. They resemble those pits about Mount AEtna, Vesuvius, and the various parts of Sicily and Calabria, as described by Hamilton and other writers. What may have been the cause of them, is left for the determination of the ingenious naturalist.
The other stones and fossils on and about Ingleborough, are black and brown marbles, abounding with white sea-shells, sparks of spar, and flakes of entrochi; spars of various sorts, the stalactical and icicle in the caves; slates, pale and brown, and near Ingleton blue; black shiver, Tripoli or rotten stone, blood stone, and lead ore. The soil on the base and sides of Ingleborough (where there is any) is chiefly peat-moss, which the country people get up and burn for fuel: the cover is in general ling or heath: other vegetables are ferns of various kinds; reindeer moss, and various other mosses: heleborines, white and red; the different sorts of sedums, crane's bills, scurvy-grass. bird's-eyes, various liver-worts, orchises, rose-wort, lily of the valley, mountain columbines, the hurtle-berry or bill-berry, knout-berry, cran-berry, cloud-berry, and cow-berry. The shrubs are mountain-vine, bird-cherry, mountain-ash, gelder-rose, burnet-rose, stone-bramble, red and black-currants. In the Foal-foot, which is the north-west corner of this mountain, are found the vivaperous-grass, and the rose-of-the-root, which has a yellow flower, and is like house-leek. Near Ingleton, as was before observed, are the lady's-slipper and fly-orchis. The chief animals found on and about Ingle-
image WS21P265, button   goto source.
Page 265:-
[Ingle]borough, are grouse, the ring-ousle, and wheat-ear, the fox, mountain cat, wild-cat, pole-cat, weasle (sic), stoat, badger, and martin.
The perpendicular height of this mountain above the level of the sea, is 3987 feet, as taken by a neighbouring country-gentleman. The country people are all persuaded that Whernside, on the north side of the vale of Chapel-in-the-Dale, is higher than Ingleborough, from snow continuing longer on its top, and other circumstances. The elevation appears so nearly the same to the eye, that nothing but an exact admeasurement can determine this honour for these rival, soaring candidates. The top of Ingleborough is the first land, however, that sailors descry in their voyage from Dublin to Lancaster, though above thirty miles form the sea, which shows the great height of this mountain, though not an argument for its being higher then Whernside, which is not so well situated to be seen from the Irish Sea.
image WS21P266, button   goto source.
Page 266:-
...
... the whole limestone base of this monster of nature is perforated and excavated in all directions, like a honeycomb. [1]
[1] Limestone has all the appearance of having been once in a soft state, and easily soluble in water. This principle will account for the scallops on the surface of limestone rocks, being made perhaps by the water draining off while the stone was soft; also for the chinks and crevices amongst them, made by their shrinking together when dried by the sun. The caves themselves proceed, most probably, from a great part of the rock being dissolved and washed down by the streams pervading the different strata.
image WS21P270, button   goto source.
Page 270:-
... Being so near the top of Whernside, we ventured to ascend to the summit. ... Pendle-hill appeared over the top of Ingleborough, which gave us a high idea of our own elevation, this latter mountain being much higher than the former. ...
image WS21P274, button   goto source.
Page 274:-
...
There are several other caves, all along from hence [Long Churn], on the south side of Ingleborough, above the village of Clapham, to Ingleton; but we postponed the pleasure of exploring these hidden recesses of nature till another summer. ...
date:- 1760; 1769
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

old map:- Saxton 1579

image Sax9SD67, button   goto source.
thumbnail Sax9SD67, button to large image
county:- Eboracensis
hill
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

button   Alum Pot Beck
button   Alum Pot, North Yorkshire
button   beacon, Ingleborough
button   Boggart Hole Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Boggart's Roaring Hole, North Yorkshire
button   Braithwaite Wife Hole, North Yorkshire
button   Browside Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Bruntscar Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Clapdale Pass, North Yorkshire
button   Diccan Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Far Douk Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Fell Beck
button   Fluted Hole, North Yorkshire
button   Foal's Foot Potholes, North Yorkshire
button   Gaping Gill, North Yorkshire
button   Gatekirk Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Great Douk Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Hardrawkin Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Haws Gill Wheel, North Yorkshire
button   Homeshaw Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Hurtle Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Jingle Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Juniper Gulf, North Yorkshire
button   Long Churn Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Long Kin East Cave, North Yorkshire
button   Long Kin East Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Long Kin West, North Yorkshire
button   Marble Pot, North Yorkshire
button   Mere Gill
button   Meregill Hole, North Yorkshire
button   Mud Foot Hole, North Yorkshire
button   Pillar Holes, North Yorkshire
button   Scar Top, North Yorkshire
button   Weathercoate Cave, North Yorkshire
button   White Scar Cave, North Yorkshire

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

button to lakes menu  Lakes Guides menu.

©  Martin and Jean Norgate: 2014
mailto button  email:- JandMN@norgate.freeserve.co.uk
button, online connection  Other projects

button, online connection  Geography Department, Portsmouth University