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placename:- Galava
locality:- Brathay, River
locality:- Waterhead
locality:- Ambleside
parish Lakes parish, once in Westmorland
county:- Cumbria
roman fort
coordinates:- NY376033
10Km square:- NY30
Built to guard the roman road from Brougham to Ravenglass, 1st century.

1Km square NY3703

photograph

Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- The site does not catch the eye. -- 22.1.2011

old map:- OS County Series (Wmd 26 10)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- Dictis
antiquity
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old photograph:- Bell 1880s-1940s

thumbnail HB0252, button to large image
Photograph, head of lake Windermere, by Herbert Bell, Ambleside, Westmorland, 1890s?
Waterhead bay on the left; the roman fort site and Borrans Park left of centre.
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 32:-
...
[Ambleside] ... was formerly the site of a Roman station; ruined wall and traces of fortifications are discernible, and armour and coins have been found. ...
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 144:-
...
At the head of the lake [Windermere], and level with it, not far from Ambleside, is a Roman fort, single ditch, 396 feet by 240 the shortest side next the water, in which have been found Roman antiquities, though its name cannot be ascertained.
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 155:-
...
At the upper corner of Windermere water, not far from the present town of Ambleside, lies the carcase of an antient city with large ruins of walls, and without the walls the rubbish of old buildings in many places: adjoining to which and opening to the water has been a fort of an oblong figure 165 by 100 yards, fortified with a ditch and rampart. Pieces of bricks, little urns, glass phials, Roman coins, round stones like mill-stones, of which soldered together they were wont to make pillars (for hypocausts, and the paved ways leading to it, are undeniable testimonies of its being a work of the Romans. And to this place Mr. Horsley supposes the military ways to have gone which pass by Pap castle and through Graystock park. This fort is guarded on the west by the conflux of the rivers Rowthey and Brathey, on the south by Windermere, a high rock at a small distance intercepted the north wind, and being fortified with a ditch and rampart it was only accessible from the south-east.
Mr. Ward supposed the name of this station DICTIS, and removed AMBOGLANA to Burdoswald, it being placed by the Notitia ad lineam valli. Among other pieces of antiquity discovered in this fort, were several Roman coins in all metals, which make part of the cabinet given by deed 1674 by Mr. Thomas Brathwate to the university of Oxford, many of them found in Barran's ring, a square fort in this lordship.

placename:- Dictis
person:- : Brathwaite, Thomas
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 147:-
...
At the upper point of Winandermere lies the carcase as it were of an antient city with great ruins of walls and of buildings without the walls still remaining scattered about. It was of an oblong form defended by a fosse and vallum, in length 132 ells and in breadth 80. The British bricks, the mortar mixed with fragments of bricks, the small urns, glass vessels, Roman coins frequently found, round stone like mill-stones, of which piled on one another pillars were formerly made, and the paved roads leading to it plainly bespeak it a Roman work. Its antient name indeed is lost unless as it is at present called Ambleside any one should suppose it the AMBOGLANA of the Notitia.

placename:- Amboglana
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- Farington 1789 (plate 16)

20 engravings, Views of the Lakes in Cumberland and Westmorland, drawn by Joseph Farington, published by William Byrne, London, 1789.
Descriptive text with a print, View of Ambleside, Lakes, Cumbria, painted by Joseph Farington, engraved by T Medland, published by W Byrne, 69 Titchfield Street, London, 1789:-
... Near the Head of Windermere, ... is the vestige of a Roman Station. It lies in a Meadow on a Level with the Lake, and, as supposed, was called the Dictis, where a Part of the Cohort of the Numerous Dictentium was stationed. The Extent of the Fortress, as he gives Dimensions, was one hundred and thirty-two Ells in Length and eighty in Breadth. Its Form an oblong Square with obtuse Angles. It is placed near the Meeting of all the Roads from Penrith, Keswick, Ravenglass, Furness and Kendal, which it commanded, and was accessible only on one Side. Roman Bricks, Urns, and other earthen Vessels, Coins, Mill-Stones or Quern-Stones, as he calls them, were frequently found here. ...

placename:- Dictis
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 131:-
...
CAMBDEN says, "At the upper corner of Winandermere lieth the dead carcase of an ancient city, with great ruins of walls, and many heaps of rubbish, one from another, remaining of buildings without the walls, yet to be seen. The fortress thereof was somewhat long, fenced with a ditch and rampire, took up in length 132 ells, and breadth 80. That it has been the Romans work is evident by the British bricks, by the mortar tempered with little pieces of brick among it, by small earthen pots or pitchers, by small cruets or vials of glass, by pieces of Roman money oftentimes found, and by round stones as big as millstones or quernstones, of which laid and couched together they framed, in old times, their columns, and by the paved ways leading to it. Now the ancient name thereof is gone, unless a man would guess at it, and think it were that Amboglana, whereof the book of notices maketh mention, seeing at this day it is called Ambleside."
By some stones found on Agricola's wall since Cambden's time, it appears Amboglana was there; the stones are now at Naworth Castle. The cohort might be first established at the Picts wall, and a part of them remove hither and give it their name; for Guthrie says, "under the Honourable the Duke of Britain was placed the prefect of a detachment of the Nervii called Dictenses at Ambleside."
The fort lyes a little below the town; the remains of it are now very small, but many coins have been found there; and in the year 1785, a man planting potatoes with the spade there, found a crucifix of brass, which was given me. The inhabitants dug up, not many years ago, several pieces, (as they called them) of free stone, which probably had been altars or the pedestals of Pillars. As there is no free stone within twenty-five miles of the place, I should think they were brought hither for urns, fonts, or some purpose of that kind, as the blue ragg, or granite stones found here, cannot be worked with a chissel: Had any Antiquarian been there, some things perhaps might have led to a more perfect discovery, but they were generally broken small for scowring sand, which is a scarce article at Ambleside. That it was a Roman station is, I think, beyond a doubt: it is by the inhabitants called the Castle, and I should suppose that this castle or fort was of some account in the year 794, and was the place where the two sons of Elfwold were decoyed to before they were murdered, and not Bowness, as Cambden has conjectured: All the old authors agree that they were murdered at Winandermere, and I should suppose this was the only place of note in 794 within the parish called Winandermere.
...
Page 132:-
...
There was formerly a family of the name of Brathwaites here [Ambleside] ... The last Thomas Brathwaite of Ambleside had a large collection of Roman coins, which he and his ancestors had got from the old fort (or castle,) and another place called the Borrans, a square fort, more remains of which may be seen than of the other. There were, says Mr Machel, who had seen those coins, "6 of gold, 66 of silver, and 250 others." He left them by his will to the University of Oxford; but his will being made void for want of form, (at the instigation of Brathwaite Otway) they continued in the family, and came into the possession of the Countess of Litchfield.

placename:- Amboglana
other name:- Castle, The
person:- : Camden, William
person:- : Dictenses
person:- : Elfwold
person:- : Brathwaite, Thomas
person:- : Litchfield, Countess of
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- West 1784 map

A Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, now Cumbria, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, engraved by Paas, 53 Holborn, London, included in the Guide to the Lakes by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Westmorland, and in London, from the 3rd edition 1784, to 1821.
Camp
image Ws02NY30, button   goto source.
thumbnail Ws02NY30, button to large image
roman fort
county:- Westmorland

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P075, button   goto source.
Page 75:-
Just at the head of Windermere, and a little short of Ambleside, turn down a bye-road to the left, and see the vestige of a Roman station. It lies in a meadow, on a level with the lake, and, as supposed, was called the Dictis, where a part of the cohort Nerviorum Dictenium was stationed. It is placed near the meetings of all the roads from Penrith, Keswick, Ravenglass, Furness, and Kendal, which it commanded, and was accessible only on one side.
...
Here nothing at present is found of all that Camden mentions of this place. So swift is
image WS21P076, button   goto source.
Page 76:-
time in destroying the last remains of ancient magnificence! Roman coins and arms have been frequently found here; and, in forming the turnpike-road through Rydal, an urn was lately taken up, which contained ashes and other Roman remains, and serves to prove that the tract of the ancient road laid that way.
...
image WS21P151, button   goto source.
Page 151:-
... At Ambleside, when I enquired for the Roman station, a few years ago, no person could inform me of it, till one considering my description, answered, it is the castle. ...

placename:- Dictis
person:- unit : Nerviorum Dictenium cohort
date:- 1778
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
third page
(10) Other matters worthy observation are onely these: That at Amboglana, now called Am-
fourth page
[Am]ble-side, neere the upper corner of Winander mear, there appeares at this day the ruines of an ancient Citie, which by the British-Brickes, by Romane-money oftentimes found there, by High-wayes paved leading unto it, and other likelihoods, seemes to have beene a worke of the Romanes: the Fortresse thereof so long fenced with a ditch and rampire, that it took up in length one hundred thirtie two Ells, and in bredth eight. ...

placename:- Amboglana
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century, early; 1620s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
BORRAN'S FIELD (GALAVA ROMAN FORT) / / / LAKES / SOUTH LAKELAND / CUMBRIA / I / 450573 / NY3718203423
courtesy of English Heritage
National Trust. Remains of 2 Roman forts of different dates, with granaries etc. On splendid site in open field on lake edge, now a public open space.

placename:- Galava
district:- South Lakeland
listed building
coordinates:- NY37180342
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

old map:- Horsley 1732

NB: Horsley's ideas are not all accepted today.
Map, Britannia Antiqua, by Johanne Horsley, 1732. (nb this is tentative data)
thumbnail HOR1Cm, button to large image
Dictis / Ambleside

placename:- Dictis
other name:- Ambleside
date:- 1732
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old print:-
thumbnail PR0662, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, North East Gateway of the Station of Amboglana, 180s-90s?
printed at bottom:-
NORTH-EAST GATEWAY OF THE STATION OF AMBOGLANA

placename:- Amboglana
date:- 1880=199
period:- 19th century, late

source:- Rivet and Smith 1979

The roman fort at Ambleside, Westmorland, on the River Brathay.

placename:- Galava
other name:- Calunio
other name:- Caluuio
other name:- Colunio
other name:- Galunio
other name:- Galluio

descriptive text:- Palmer 1926

Guide book, Things Seen at the English Lakes, by William T Palmer, published by Seeley, Service and Co, 196 Shaftesbury Avenue, London, 1926.
... Though Camden gloridfied the camp as the carcass of a mighty city, the spade has given no direct evidence of either period or name. An old sandal seems to be the most distinctive find. It is not intended to decry the camp and its investgators. To the ordinary visitor it must be confessed that no remarkable thing is at present visible. ... there is no harm in looking round. ...
date:- 1926
period:- 1920s

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Porta praetoria, main gate -- 22.1.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Angle tower. -- 22.1.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Porta principalis, south gate. -- 22.1.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Praetorium. -- 22.1.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Principia. -- 22.1.2011
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Horrea, granaries. -- 22.1.2011

photographs
courtesy of the Armitt Library
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Collingood's reconstruction of the fort.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Samian ware from the fort.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Galava -- Brathay, River -- Waterhead -- Ambleside -- Lakes -- Cumbria / -- Gravestone excavated at Galava.

hearsay A gravestone found on the site (in Kendal Museum):-
To the good gods of the underworld / Flavius Fuscinus retired / from the Centurionship / Lived 55 years: / To the good gods of the underworld / Flavius Romanus, record clerk / lived for 35 years / Killed in the fort by the enemy.

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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