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placename:- Scaleby Castle
locality:- Scaleby
parish Scaleby parish, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
castle
coordinates:- NY44956251
10Km square:- NY46

1Km square NY4462

photograph

Scaleby Castle -- Scaleby -- Scaleby -- Cumbria / -- 31.8.2007
photograph

Scaleby Castle -- Scaleby -- Scaleby -- Cumbria / -- 31.8.2007

old map:- OS County Series (Cmd 17 1)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
castle
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old print:- Taylor 1892

thumbnail TY5078, button to large image
Print, halftone photograph, Scaleby Castle Gateway, Scaleby, Cumberland, published for the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, by Titus Wilson, Kendal, Westmorland, and by Charles Thurnam and Sons, Carlisle, Cumberland, 1892.
Tipped in opposite p.344 of The Old Manorial Halls of Cumberland and Westmorland, by Michael Waistell Taylor.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
date:- 1892
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 176:-
... Scalby, formerly a castle of the Tilliols, a family of renown in these parts, from whom it came to the Pickerings; ...

placename:- Scalby Cstle
person:- : Tilliol Family
person:- : Pickering Family
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 201:-
...
Scaleby castle was sold by sir Christopher Pickering's daughter's son by sir Francis Weston to the Musgraves, who rebuilt it 1696, and sold it to the Gilpins, who left it to the Stephensons. Here are preserved five altars. The first, a yellowish stone, found not far from the castle in the river Irthing. Mr. Gilpin refers it with the rest to Cambeck fort, near which that river runs. This is one of the six British altars dedicated to Belatucader, who is either Mars, Apollo, or some other local deity worshipped by the Romanised Britans in these parts. The second, dug up at Cambeck, to be read Soli invicto Sextus Severius Salavator praef. votum solvit lubens merito. The third is inscribed
Cocis is some local deity; the last letters may mean praef. votum solvit.
The 4th to Mithras,
The 5th from Cambeck fort has
i.e. Jovi Optimo Maximo cohors 4 Gallorum cui praest Volcatius Hospes praefectus equitum.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
person:- : Musgrave Family
person:- : Stephenson Family
person:- : Gilpin Family
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 105:-
...
I do not find any ancient authors mention a castle here [Castlerigg], Speed, who speaks of twenty-five in Cumberland, hath found out every one I ever heard or knew of, except Kirkoswald; how that has escaped him I cannot tell. I shall here put down their names, and, as well as I can, their most ancient owners, and supposed founders.
...
Page 106:-
...
3. SCALEBY. An ancient castle, given by Henry I. to Richard Tyllioff, commonly called the Rider, for his dexterity in horsemanship; he repaired it, and it now belongs to Rowland Stephenson, Esq.
...

placename:- Scaleby Castle
person:- : Henry I
person:- : Tyllioff, Richard; Rider, The
person:- : Stephenson, Rowland
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Gilpin 1786

Guide book, Observations, Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty, Made in the Year 1772, on Several Parts of England, Particularly the Mountains, and Lakes of Cumberland Westmoreland, by Rev William Gilpin, 1772-74; published 1786-1808.
plate opposite vol.2 p.121
thumbnail PR0459, button to large image
caption from the list of plates:-
A view of Scaleby-castle, in which the old tower, part of the walls, and the bastion, are represented.
vol.2 p.121
...
About three miles further stand the ruins of Scaleby-castle. This was another of those fortified houses, which are so frequent in this country.
It stands, as castles rarely do, on a flat; and yet, tho it's site be ill adapted to any modes of defence, it has been a place of more than ordinary strength. Rocks, knolls, and bold projecting promontories, on which castles usually stand, suggest various advantages of situation; and generally determine the kind of structure. On a flat, the engineer was at liberty to choose his own. Every part was alike open to assault.
He first drew two circular motes round the spot he designed to fortify: the circumference of the outward circle was about a mile.
vol.2 p.122
The earth, thrown out of these two motes, which were broad and deep, seems to have been heaped up at the centre, where there is a considerable rise. On this was built the castle, which was entered by two draw-bridges; and defended by a high tower, and a very lofty wall.
At present, one of the motes only remains. The other is filled up; but may still be traced. The castle is more perfect, than such buildings commonly are. The walls are very intire; and great part of the tower, which is square, is still left. It preserved it's perfect form, till the civil wars of the last century; when the castle, in too much confidence of it's strength, shut it's gates against Cromwell, then marching into Scotland; who made it a monument of his vengeance.
...
vol.2 p.123
... He has rent the tower, and demolished two of it's sides; the edges of the other two he has shattered into broken lines. The chasm discovers the whole plan of the internal structure - the vestiges of the several stories - the insertion of the arches, which supported them - the windows for speculation; and the breastwork for assault.
The walls of this castle are uncommonly magnificent. They are not only of great height, but of great thickness; and defended by a large bastion; which appears to be of more modern workmanship. The greatest part of them is chambered within, and wrought into secret recesses. A massy portcullis gate leads to the ruins of what was once the habitable part of the castle, in which a large vaulted hall is the most remarkable apartment; and under it, are dark, and capacious dungeons.
The area within the mote, which consists of several acres, was originally intended to support the cattle, which should be driven thither in times of alarm. When the house
vol.2 p.124
was inhabited, (whose chearful and better days are still remembered,) this area was the garden; and all around, on the outside of the mote stood noble trees, irregularly planted, the growth of a century. Beneath the trees ran a walk round the castle; to which the situation naturally gave that pleasing curve, which in modern days hath been so much the object of art. This walk might admit of great embellishment. On one hand, it commands the ruins of the castle in every point of view; on the other, a country, which tho flat, is not unpleasing; consisting of extensive meadows, (which a little planting might turn into beautiful lawns,) bounded by lofty mountains.
This venerable pile has now undergone a second ruin. The old oaks and elms, the ancient natives of the scene, are felled. Weeds, and spiry grass have taken possession of the courts, and obliterated the very plan of a garden: while the house itself, (whose hospitable roof deserved a better fate,) is now a scene of desolation. Two wretched families, the only inhabitants of the place, occupied the two ends of the vaulted hall; the fragment of a tattered curtain, reaching half way to
vol.2 p.125
the top, being the simple boundary of their respective limits. All the rest was waste: no other part of the house is habitable. The chambers unwindowed, and almost unroofed, fluttered with rags of ancient tapestry, were the haunts of daws, and pigeons; which burst out in clouds of dust, when the doors were opened: while the floors, yielding to the tread, made curiosity dangerous. A few pictures, heir-looms of the wall, which have long deserved oblivion, by I know not what fate, were the only appendages of this dissolving pile, which had triumphed over the injuries of time.
Shakespear's castle of Macbeth could not have been more the haunt of swallows and martins, than this. You see them every where about the ruins; either twittering on broken coins; threading some fractured arch; or pursuing each other, in screaming circles, round the walls of the castle &*RECORD_TYPE part record #x002A.
[2.125.&*RECORD_TYPE part record #x002A;] In this old castle the author of this tour was born, and spent his early youth; which must be his apology for dwelling so long upon it.- Since this description was written, it has, in some degree, been repaired.'

placename:- Scaleby Castle
person:- : Gilpin, William
person:- : Cromwell, Oliver
date:- 1786
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
thumbnail BO18NY46, button to large image
Scalby Cas.
circle and line

placename:- Scalby Castle
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746 -- probably relevant

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP4P197, button   goto source.
... Scalby, the Seat of William Glisson, Esq; ...

placename:- Scalby
person:- : Glisson, William
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Cmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD12NY46, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD12NY46, button to large image
Scalby Cast
Circle, building with two towers.

placename:- Scalby Castle
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Sanson 1679

Map, Ancien Royaume de Northumberland aujourdhuy Provinces de Nort, ie the Ancient Kingdom of Northumberland or the Northern Provinces, scale about miles to 1 inch, by Nicholas Sanson, Paris, France, 1679.
thumbnail SAN2Cm, button to large image
Scalby
circle, building and tower, flag; town?

placename:- Scalby
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1679
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

old map:- Jansson 1646

Map, Cumbria et Westmoria, or Cumberland and Westmorland, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Jansson, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1646; published 1646-1724.
thumbnail JAN3NY46, button to large image
Scalbÿe cast.
Buildings and tower with flag.

placename:- Scalbye Castle
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1646
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

table of distances:- Simons 1635

Table of distances and map of Westmorland, engraved by Jacob van Langeren, published by Mathew Simons, London, 1635-36.
thumbnail SIM4, button to large image
Scalby Ca: N
and tabulated distances

placename:- Scalby Castle
date:- 1635
period:- 17th century, early; 1630s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Cmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SP11NY46, button to large image
Scalby cast.
circle, building, tower

placename:- Scalby Castle
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Saxton 1579

image Sax9NY46, button   goto source.
thumbnail Sax9NY46, button to large image
Building with two towers, symbol for a castle.
Scalbye cast:

placename:- Scalbye Castle
county:- Cumberlandia
castle
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

old map:- Badeslade 1742 -- probably relevant

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
thumbnail BD10, button to large image
Castle
circle, italic lowercase text; village, hamlet or locality

placename:- Castle
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
SCALEBY CASTLE / / / SCALEBY / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / I / 77959 / NY4491062454
courtesy of English Heritage
Castle. Probably late C13, licence to crenellate granted to Sir Robert de Tylliol, 1307; mostly rebuilt in C15, with late C16 wing for Sir Edward Musgrave, altered in late C17 for William Gilpin and remodelled about 1838, probably by Thomas Rickman for the Fawcett family. Oldest work is of red sandstone from the nearby Roman Wall; later work of mixed Roman Wall stone and ashlar, with most recent work of red sandstone ashlar; slate roofs, brick and ashlar chimney stacks. L-shaped buildings with angle curtain wall form roughly a square; circular enclosing moat now filled; remaining water-filled outer moat. 4-storey, single-bay tower house, now in ruins, has 3-storey, 3-bay great hall adjoining to south; projecting 2-storey open roof polygonal curtain tower, adjoins to north-west; north-west facing 2-storey gatehouse, with joining high curtain wall, enclosing small courtyard; south range, at right angles to the great hall, is of 2 periods, that to right 3 storeys and attic, bays and later building left of 3 storeys, 2 bays. Tower house has extremely thick chamfered plinth and chamfered string courses to each floor, chamfered lancet windows. Interior has remains of vaulted lower chamber, with remains of newel staircase in thickness of the wall, all other floors gone and walls in ruins, probably as a result of destruction after 1648 siege. Curtain tower has C15 windows to ground floor and chamfered lancets above; wall probably battlemented but now in ruins. Wall to courtyard has inner gate giving access to tower house. Adjoining gatehouse has round arch entrance with recessed pointed arch. Large angle buttress, with large raised panels above entrance with central recess. Carved stone coat of arms of de Tylliols, to left, and central carved Gilpin arms above entrance. Interior has porters' lodges flanking entrance, with portcullis room above. Great hall has stepped entrance dated 1965. Sash windows with glazing bars and hood moulds were added in 1680's; filled slit vents. Entrance from courtyard has pointed arch. Interior had tunnel vaulted lower chamber. South range has large stepped angle buttresses; building to right of 1567-1606 on earlier foundations has sash windows of 1680's and c1838, with above-eaves gabled dormers; projecting 3-storey bay ends in gabled dormer. Circa 1838 building left has mullioned casement windows with glazing bars and hood moulds, that on ground floor left altered to a French window. End wall has C19 mullioned windows with quatrefoil window in gable angle. Coupled battlemented stone chimney stacks. Rear has courtyard entrance dated 1737 with cartouche of Richard Gilpin. Sash windows with glazing bars and C19 mullioned windows have square leaded panes. Birthplace of the Rev William Gilpin and his brother Sawrey Gilpin. See, Transactions Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Soc., Vol. XXV, p398-413.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
district:- Carlisle
listed building
coordinates:- NY44916245
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
BRIDGE OVER MOAT NORTH EAST OF SCALEBY CASTLE / / / SCALEBY / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / II / 77961 / NY4495162514
courtesy of English Heritage
Road bridge. Probably C17, repaired at various dates. Dressed red sandstone. Single span, single track bridge of segmental arch with abutments forming side walls of the moat and later brick parapet.
district:- Carlisle
listed building -- bridge
coordinates:- NY44956251
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
STABLES EAST OF SCALEBY CASTLE / / / SCALEBY / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / II / 77960 / NY4494962500
courtesy of English Heritage
Stable block. Late C18 and early C19. Red sandstone and brick with sandstone dressings; Welsh slate roof with some sandstone slates. Buildings on 4 sides enclosing cobbled courtyard with wide entrance towards castle. Single storey with lofts above, of numerous bays. Plank doors have flat and round arches. Windows are a mixture of sashes, diamond leaded casements and wooden slat vents. Wall towards castle has been rebuilt in C20 brick with large garage doors.
district:- Carlisle
listed building -- stable
coordinates:- NY44946250
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
GATEPIERS AND WALL NORTH OF SCALEBY CASTLE / / / SCALEBY / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / II / 77962 / NY4490062489
courtesy of English Heritage
Gate piers and wall. Late C17. Brick with sandstone dressings. 2 square brick columns with recessed panels on chamfered sandstone plinth and with sandstone drip mould, chamfered caps with ball finials. High brick wall to left joins castle wall at right angles. Similar wall to right originally enclosed small garden, but now partly demolished and reduced in height.
district:- Carlisle
listed building -- gate piers
coordinates:- NY44906248
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

old print:- Gilpin 1786 (?edn)

Guide book, Observations, Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty, Made in the Year 1772, on Several Parts of England, Particularly the Mountains, and Lakes of Cumberland Westmoreland, by Rev William Gilpin, 1772-74; published 1786-1808.
thumbnail PR0459, button to large image
Print, oval sepia tinted aquatint, Scaleby Castle, Cumberland, by William Gilpin, 1772-74, published by T Cadell and W Davies, Strand, London, 1786.
Included in vol.2 opposite p.121 in Observations, Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty, made in the year 1772.
The list of plates in the preface of the book has:-
XX. A view of Scaleby-castle, in which the old tower part of the walls, and the bastion, are represented. Page 121.
The text pp.121-125 has:-
... About three miles further we visited the ruins of Scaleby-castle. This was another of those fortified houses, which are so frequent in this country.
It stands, as castles rarely do, on a flat; and yet, tho it's site be ill adapted to any modes of defence, it has been a place of more than ordinary strength. Rocks, knolls, and bold projecting promontories, on which castles usually stand, suggest various advantages of situation; and generally determine the kind of structure. On a flat, the engineer was at liberty to choose his own. Every part was alike open to assault.
He first drew two circular motes round the spot he designed to fortify: the circumference of the outward circle was somewhat more than half a mile. The earth, thrown out of these two motes, which were broad and deep, seems to have been heaped up at the centre, where there is a considerable rise. On this was built the castle, which was entered by two draw-bridges; and defended by a high tower, and a very lofty wall.
At present, one of the motes only remains. The other is filled up; but may still be traced. The castle is more perfect, than such buildings usually are. The walls are very intire; and a great part of the tower, which is square, is still left. It preserved it's perfect form, till the civil wars of the last century; when the castle, in too much confidence of it's strength, shut it's gates against Cromwell, then marching into Scotland; who made it a monument of his vengeance.
What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. The difference between the two masters lay chiefly with the style of ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscapes with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles.
I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style; but seldom a finer monument of his masterly hand than this. He has rent the tower, and demolished two of it's sides; the edges of the other two he has shattered into broken lines. The chasm discovers the whole plan of the internal structure - the vestiges of several stories - the insertion of the arches, which supported them - the windows for speculation; and the breastwork for assault.
The walls of this castle are uncommonly magnificent. They are not only of great height, but of great thickness; and defended by a large bastion; which appears to be of more modern workmanship. The greatest part of them is chambered within, and wrought into secret recesses. A massy portcullis gate leads to the ruins of what was once the habitable part of the castle, in which a large vaulted hall is the most remarkable apartment; and under it, are dark, and capacious dungeons.
The area within the mote, which consists of several acres, was originally intended to support the cattle, which should be driven thither in times of alarm. When the house was inhabited (whose chearful and better days are still remembered, (sic) this area was the garden; and all around, on the outside of the mote stood noble trees, irregularly planted, the growth of a century. Beneath the trees ran a walk round the castle; to which the situation naturally gave that pleasing curve, which in modern days hath been so much the object of art. This walk might admit of great embellishment. On one hand, it commands the ruins of the castle in every point of view; on the other, a country, which tho flat, is not unpleasing; consisting of extensive meadows, (which a little planting might turn into beautiful lawns,) bounded by lofty mountains.
This venerable pile has now undergone a second ruin. The old oaks and elms, the ancient natives of the scene, are felled. Weeds, and spiry grass have taken possession of the courts, and obliterated the very plan of a garden: while the house itself, (whose hospitable roof deserved a better fate,) is now a scene of desolation. Two wretched families, the only inhabitants of the place, occupied the two ends of the vaulted hall, when we saw it, the fragment of a tattered curtain, reaching half way to the top, being the simple boundary of their respective limits. All the rest was waste: no other part of the house was habitable. The chambers unwindowed, and almost unroofed, fluttered with rags of ancient tapestry, were the haunts of daws, and pigeons; which burst out in clouds of dust, when the doors were opened: while the floors, yielding to the tread, made curiosity dangerous. A few pictures, heir-looms of the wall, which have long deserved oblivion, by I know not what fate, were the only appendages of this dissolving pile, which had triumphed over the injuries of time.
Shakespear's castle of Macbeth could not have been more the haunt of swallows and martins, than this. we saw them every where about the ruins; either twittering on broken coins; threading some fractured arch; or pursuing each other, in screaming circles, round the walls of the castle. [star]
[footnote/star]:-
In this old castle the author of this tour was born, and spent his early youth; which must be his apology for dwelling so long upon it.- Since this description was written, it has, in some degree, been repaired.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
date:- 1772=1774
period:- 18th century, late

old print:- Buck 1739/1837 (edn 1877)

Set of prints, engravings, The Castles, Abbeys, and Priories of the County of Cumberland, by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, 1739, reprinted by Hudson Scott and Sons, Carlisle, Cumberland, 1837 and 1877.
thumbnail BU0109, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, The North East View of Scaleby Castle, in the County of Cumberland, drawn and engraved by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, 1739, reprinted by Hudson Scott and Sons, Carlisle, Cumberland, 1877.
With descriptive text of 1837.
No.9 in The Castles, Abbeys, and Priories of the County of Cumberland, 1877.
printed at top:-
THE NORTH-EAST VIEW OF SCALEBY-CASTLE, IN THE COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND.
printed at lower left:-
To Richard Gilpin Esqr: This Prospect is humbly Inscribed by his Oblig'd Servants, Saml. & Nathl. Buck.
printed at lower right:-
THIS Castle wch. is still surrounded with a Mote in very good Order, was built by Richard the Rider, surnam'd Tiliolff, who first possess'd ye Manor of Scaleby by the Grant of K. Hen: I. From him it descended along with ye said Manor, for abut ten Generation unto Robt. Tiliolff, who died in ye Reign of K. Hen: VI. without Issue. Then it came by Marriage of ye Heiress, to ye Pickerings, & afterwds. from Them, by ye like means, to ye Musgraves of Hayton in this County, of whom, after it had suffer'd much in ye Civil Wars, it was purchas'd by Richd. Gilpin Esqr. M.D. Grandfather of Richard Gilpin Esqr. ye present Proprietor. Saml. & Nathl. Buck delin: et sculp: Publish'd according to Act of Parliament March 26. 1739.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
person:- : Gilpin, Richard
person:- : Tiliolff, Richard; Richard the Rider
person:- : Tiliolff Family
person:- : Pickering Family
person:- : Musgrave Family
date:- 1739
period:- 18th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR0174, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Scaleby Castle, Cumberland, painted by G Arnald, engraved by J Greig, published by Longman and Co, Paternoster Row, London, 1815.
Included in the Border Antiquities of England and Scotland.
printed at bottom:-
Engraved by J. Greig, from a Painting by G. Arnald A.R.A. after a Drawing by H. Fawcett, Esqr. M.P. for the Border Antiquities of England & Scotland. / SCALEBY CASTLE, / Cumberland. / London. Published Nov. 1. 1815, for the Proprietors by Longman & Co Paternoster Row.

placename:- Scaleby Castle
person:- gardener
date:- 1815
period:- 19th century, early

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Scaleby Castle -- Scaleby -- Scaleby -- Cumbria / -- A segment of moat. -- 31.8.2007

hearsay Licence to crenellate granted 1307; gatehouse 14th century; hall 15th century; modified in 17th century; additions 19th century; etc.

notes tower, curtain wall, gateway, moat
Perriam, D R & Robinson, J: 1998: Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria: CWAAS:: ISBN 1 873124 23 6; plan and illustrations

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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