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placename:- Solway Firth
county:- Cumbria
estuary; river estuary; sea area
coordinates:- NY16
10Km square:- NY05
10Km square:- NY15
10Km square:- NY16
10Km square:- NY26

1Km square NY1060

photograph

Solway Firth -- Cumbria / -- Solway Firth, Galloway coast, from the Port of Workington. -- 14.5.2007

text:- Mason 1907 (edn 1930)

Page 25:-
...
... The Solway Frith, into which the Eden flows, divides Cumberland from the Scotch county of Dumfries.

placename:- Solway Frith
date:- 1907
period:- 1900s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02NY26, button to large image
SOLWAY FIRTH

placename:- Solway Firth
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
image OT01P040, button   goto source.
Page 40:-
... the Eden, which enters the Solway Frith a little below Carlisle; ...

placename:- Solway Frith
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Perrot 1823

Map, Cumberland, Westmoreland, scale about 38 miles to 1 inch, by Aristide Michel Perrot, engraved by Migneret, 1823, published by Etienne Ledoux, 9 Rue Guenegaud, Paris, France, 1824; published 1824-48.
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G. Solway
estuary

placename:- Golfe Solway
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Hall 1820 (Cmd)

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 14.5 miles to 1 inch, by Sidney Hall, London, 1820, published by Samuel Leigh, 18 Strand, London, 1820-31.
thumbnail HA14, button to large image
estuary
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1820
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Cooke 1802

Maps, Westmoreland, Cumberland, etc, now Cumbria, by George Alexander Cooke, London, 1802-10; published 1802-24.
thumbnail GRA1Cd, button to large image
Solway Frith or Eden R.
estuary

placename:- Solway Frith
other name:- Eden River
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 172:-
...
A little higher up runs out a small cape, and below it lies a large aestuary, called by the Scots Solway
Page 173:-
frith, now dividing England and Scotland as formerly the Roman province and the Picts. ...
...
Page 173:-
...
Below this Burgh [by Sands], in the frith itself, the inhabitants say the Scots and English fleets engaged, and, on the retreat of the tide their cavalry, which seems as extraordinary as what Pliny relates with astonishment of a similar place in Caramania. This frith is called Solway frith by both nations from Solway a Scotch town on it. But Ptolemy more properly calls it ITUNA. For the noble river Eiden, which waters Westmoreland and the inner parts of this county, pours the largest quantity of water into it, still mindful of the obstruction it met with from the heaps of Scottish bodies in 1216 drowned in it in their return from England loaded with spoil, when it whelmed that band of marauders in its stream.
...
Page 173:-
... [Solway Frith] ... Ptolemy more properly calls it ITUNA. For the noble river Eiden, which waters Westmoreland and the inner parts of this county, pours the largest quantity of water into it, still mindful of the obstruction it met with from the heaps of Scottish bodies in 1216 drowned in it in their return from England loaded with spoil, when it whelmed that band of marauders in its stream.

placename:- Solway Frith
other name:- Ituna
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s
event:- naval battle; battle

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P019, button   goto source.
Page 19:-
The Caledonians, the unconquered enemies and greatest plague of the Romans in Britain, were particularly galled and offended with the garrison at Lancaster, it being always the first to oppose them, as often as they invaded the empire, by crossing the Solway firth. For having taken advantage of the spring-tides and the darkness of the nights at the change of the moon, ...
image WS21P308, button   goto source.
Mrs Radcliffe's Ride over Skiddaw, 1794
Page 308:-
[on Skiddaw] ... The Solway appeared surprisingly near us, though at fifty miles distance; and the guide said, that, on a bright day, its shipping could plainly be discerned.- ...
person:- : Caledonians
date:- 1760; 1778
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s; 1770s

old text:- Mackenzie 1776

Charts, and sailing directions, Nautical Descriptions of the West Coast of Great Britain, Bristol Channel to Cape Wrath, by Murdoch Mackenzie, published London, 1776.
Page 21:-
... ... ...
A description of the Tides, Rocks, Shoals, and Anchoring-places, in the MOUTH OF SOLWAY FIRTH.
CHART XIII.
TIDES / Tides in the Mouth of SOLWAY FIRTH
Time of high-water. / In the mouth of Solway Firth, both on the English and Scotch side, it is high-water on the full and change days of the moon at eleven o'clock.
Page 22:-
Rise of the Tide. / Spring-tides rise twenty feet perpendicular; neap-tides eleven or twelve feet.
Velocity of the Stream. / Spring-tides near Burrow Head, in Scotland, run about three miles an hour when strongest; neap-tides one. In other parts of the coast, included in this draft, the stream is not so strong.
Direction of the Stream. / The principal stream of flood that fills Solway Firth, comes from the N.W. between the Mule of Cantire and Ireland; part of which runs along the Mule of Galloway, and from thence up Solway Firth.
ROCKS and SHOALS. / There are no rocks or shoals in the mouth of Solway Firth, excepting such as lie within the bays or harbours, and will be described with them, or may be seen distinctly in the draft.
... ... ...
A Description of the Tides, Rocks, Shoals, Sand-banks, Channels, Anchoring-places, and Harbours in SOLWAY FIRTH.
CHART XIV.
TIDES. / Tides in SOLWAY FIRTH.
Time of High-water on the English side, and on the Scotch side. / It is high-water on the full and change days of the moon in Whitehaven, in Cumberland, at eleven o'clock; in Mary-Port at 11 1/2; at Bowness and Annan at twelve; at Saturness Point, in Scotland, at 11 1/4; in the harbour of Kirkcudbright at eleven.
Pages 23-24:-
Rise of the Tide. / Spring-tides in Solway Firth, on both sides, rise about twenty feet perpendicular; neap-tides about twelve: off Carsthorn, near the mouth of the river Nith, spring-tide rises seventeen or eighteen feet perpendicular; near Saturness Point it rose twenty-four feet.
Direction of the Stream. / The stream of flood, which fills Solway Firth, comes from the north-west, between the Mule of Cantire in Scotland and Rachlin Island in Ireland, and from thence runs along the Mule of Galloway up Solway Firth.
Velocity of the Stream on the English side. / The stream along the shore, on the English side, between St. Bee's Head and Mary-Port, runs about two miles an hour when strongest; from Mary-Port to Skinburness, three miles; from Skinburness to Bowness, five or six miles an hour: neap-tides have about one-third of that velocity.
Velocity on the Scotch side. / The stream on the Scotch side, between the Bay of Kirkcudbright and Barnhowry Bank, when strongest, runs about three miles an hour; along the Point of Saturness, it runs five miles; and in the channel off Annan about six miles.
...
Caution in sailing along the S. side of Solway Firth. / No vessel should sail eastward in Solway Firth, on the English side, above Dubmill-swap, except between half-flood and high-water: for, if they happen to ground with ebb-tide on any Bank in the tide-way, the stream, particularly with spring tide, will wash away the sand from the ship's side so as to overset her. If a vessel is under any necessity of running a ground, it should be done, if possible, under shelter of some point, or bight on the shore, to break the strength of the stream; and not in a channel, or on a detached Bank. The like caution is necessary on the Scotch side above Carsthorn.

date:- 1776
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
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Solway Frith [now Eden River]
sea area
thumbnail BO18NY26, button to large image
[Solway Frith] now Eden R.
sea area

placename:- Solway Frith
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

old map:- Bickham 1753-54 (Cmd)

Maps, A Map of Westmorland, 1753, and A Map of Cumberland, 1754, by George Bickham, published 1750s-96.
thumbnail JL05, button to large image
Solway Frith
view (sort of)

placename:- Solway Frith
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1753=1754
period:- 18th century, late; 1750s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP4P187, button   goto source.
...
On the N.W. of Carlisle, there juts out a small Promontory, at the Point of which is the large Arm of the Sea, call'd Solway-Frith, or Hunae-Ostium i.e., the Mouth of the River Eden. It is, at present, the Boundary between England and Scotland, but anciently between the Roman Provinces and the Picts.

placename:- Solway Frith
placename:- Mouth of the River Eden
other name:- Hunae Ostium
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
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Solway Frith
estuary, sea area

placename:- Solway Frith
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
... Carlisle is strong by situation, being almost surrounded with rivers. On the east it has the River Potterell, on the north Eden, and on the south the Cande, or Canda, or Calda, which all fall into the arms of the sea, which they call the Solway, or Solway Firth.
date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Stukeley 1723

Map of roman roads through Britain, scale about 55 miles to 1 inch, derived from the Antonine Itineraries, plotted by William Stukeley, 1723, published London, 1724.
thumbnail Stu1Cm, button to large image
date:- 1723
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Bowen 1720 (plate 162)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
The Eden (at 1 P.161) after having receiv'd several other considerable Rivers, empties it self into ye Ituni: an Bay, ...
About 6 Miles farther in the Itunian Bay or Solway Frith, on a Cape of Land is Bolness the Old Blatum Bulgiu~, formerly a Roman Station, ...

placename:- Itunian Bay
other name:- Solway Frith
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Morden 1695 (EW)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MRD3Cm, button   goto source.
thumbnail MRD3Cm, button to large image
estuary
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Cmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD12NY16, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD12NY16, button to large image
image MD12NY26, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD12NY26, button to large image
image MD12NY36, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD12NY36, button to large image
Solway Frith ot Itunae Flu now Eden R.
River estuary.

placename:- Solway Frith
other name:- Itunae Flu.
other name:- Eden River
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Seller 1694 (Cmd)

Map, Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, by John Seller, 1694; editions to 1787.
thumbnail SEL9, button to large image
estuary
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1694
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Sanson 1679

Map, Ancien Royaume de Northumberland aujourdhuy Provinces de Nort, ie the Ancient Kingdom of Northumberland or the Northern Provinces, scale about miles to 1 inch, by Nicholas Sanson, Paris, France, 1679.
thumbnail SAN2Cm, button to large image
estuary
date:- 1679
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

old map:- Jansson 1646

Map, Cumbria et Westmoria, or Cumberland and Westmorland, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Jansson, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1646; published 1646-1724.
thumbnail JAN3NY26, button to large image
Eden flude
thumbnail JAN3NY16, button to large image
Itunae Baye

placename:- Itunae Baye
other name:- Eden Flude
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1646
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

old map:- Drayton 1612/1622

Map, Cumberlande and Westmorlande, by Michael Drayton in part 2 of Polyolbion, probably engraved by William Hole; published by John Marriott, John Grismand, and Thomas Dewe, London, 1622.
thumbnail DRY505, button to large image
Sea more effect, coast shaded, foreshore sands.
date:- 1622
period:- 17th century, early; 1620s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Cum/EW)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SPD6Cm, button to large image
estuary
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Cmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SP11NY16, button to large image
Itunae Baye
estuary, river channel and foreshore sands

placename:- Itunae Baye
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

source:- Keer 1605

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
thumbnail KER8, button to large image
sea area

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
first page:-
... Solway Frith, by Ptolemie called the Ituna Baye. ...

placename:- Solway Frith
other name:- Ituna Baye
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century, early; 1620s

source:- Lloyd 1573 -- probably relevant

Map, Angliae Regni, Kingdom of England, with Wales, scale about 24 miles to 1 inch, authored by Humphrey Lloyd, Denbigh, Clwyd, drawn and engraved by Abraham Ortelius, Netherlands, 1573.
thumbnail Lld1Cm, button to large image
date:- 1573
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

old map:- Gough 1350s-60s

Reproduction of the Gough Map of Great Britain, reduced size, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, 1875; and a full size line reproduction, with added transcriptions of placenames, 1935.
Not labelled.
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river

old map:- Saxton 1579

image Sax9NY16, button   goto source.
thumbnail Sax9NY16, button to large image
image Sax9NY26, button   goto source.
thumbnail Sax9NY26, button to large image
county:- Cumberlandia
estuary
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

old map:- Ptolemy 1540

Map, Anglia II Nova Tabula, New Map of England, data in the Geographia by Claudius Ptolemy, engraved by Sebastian Munster, Basle, Switzerland, 1540.
thumbnail PTY4Cm, button to large image
river estuary
date:- 1540
period:- 16th century, early; 1540s

old map:- Cooper 1808

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, scale about 9 miles to 1 inch, by H Cooper, 1808, published by G and W B Whittaker, 13 Ave Maria Lane, London, 1824.
thumbnail COP3, button to large image
SOLWAY FIRTH
estuary

placename:- Solway Firth
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1808
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:- Burghley 1590 (facsimile)

generic label for the many sandbanks?
courtesy of the National Library of Scotland
thumbnail M048NY26, button to large image
Soulua Sands
wavy lines

placename:- Soulua Sands

old map:- Ptolemy 1578

Prima Europe tabula, Europe Map 1, Ptolemy map of roman Britain, by Gerard Mercator, 1578.
thumbnail Pty1Cm, button to large image
Ituna estuarium

placename:- Ituna estuarium

old map:- Ptolemy 1793


Map, Albion et Hibernia Britannicae Insulae, from the data of Claudius Ptolemy, 2nd century, on the example of Gerard Mercator, 16th century, scale about 55 miles to 1 inch, engraved by Basire, published for the Society of Antiquaries, 1793.
thumbnail PTY3Cm, button to large image
Ituna AEstuarium

placename:- Ituna AEstuarium
date:- 1793
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Horsley 1732

NB: Horsley's ideas are not all accepted today.
Map, Britannia Antiqua, by Johanne Horsley, 1732. (nb this is tentative data)
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Ituna AEstuarium / Solway Firth

placename:- Ituna AEstuarium
other name:- Solway Firth
date:- 1732
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old print:- Jenkinson 1875

Guide book, A Practical Guide to the English Lake District, by Henry Irwin Jenkinson, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 4th edition 1875.
thumbnail Jk01E1, button to large image
Print, lithograph, outline view, Panoramic Sketches from Helvellyn, Westmorland, by Edwin A Pettitt, London, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1875.
... Solway Firth ...
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Print, lithograph, outline view, Panoramic Sketches from Skiddaw, Cumberland, by Edwin A Pettitt, London, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1875.
... Solway Firth ...

placename:- Solway Firth
date:- 1875
period:- 19th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR1210, button to large image
Print, Solway Wildfowler, by Joseph W Simpson, 1925-29.
Half length depiction of a wildfowler, middle aged, facing left, his head turned to regard the viewer. He wears waterproofs and rests a rifle under his left arm. He is seen against a background of flat marshland.
signed at bottom right:-
Joseph Simpson
person:- wildfowler
date:-
period:- 1920s

old painting:-
thumbnail PR0952, button to large image
Painting, watercolour, The Solway looking towards Scotland, perhaps at Allonby or Port Carlisle? Cumberland, by William James Blacklock, 1850-58?
In foreground three figures wait beside two small boats pulled onto the foreshore of an estuary. Small whitewashed building stands to right of composition. This is possibly a view of Allonby
date:- 1850=1858
period:- 19th century, late

old painting:-
thumbnail PR0840, button to large image
Painting, oil painting, The Packet Boat Cumberland; A Storm on the Firth, Solway Firth off Cumberland, by Joseph Heard, about 1840.
A packet boat is tossed upon a stormy sea, its sails furled. The silvery glow of a full moon illuminates the troughs of the waves. Part of the boat's cargo of sacks has been swept overboard and floats beside and behind it.
date:- 1840
period:- 19th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR0076, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, The Solway from Harrington Harbour, Cumberland, drawn by W H Bartlett, engraved by R Brandard, published by George Virtue, 26 Ivy Lane, London, 1841.
Probably from Findens Views of the Ports, Harbours, Coast Scenery, and Watering Places of Great Britain, as continued by W H Bartlett.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
W. H. Bartlett. / R. Brandard. / THE SOLWAY / (from Harrington Harbour.) / London: Published for the Proprietors, by Geo: Virtue, 26, Ivy Lane, 1841.

placename:- Solway, The
date:- 1841
period:- 19th century, early

photographs
Haaf netting is a norwegian way of fishing for salmon and sea trout. The fisherman stands in the flooding tide with the large square nets on a pole framework. When a fish enters the nets the fisherman heaves the net over the pole to trap the fish.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Solway Firth -- Cumbria / -- Courtesy of the Hope and Anchor, Port Carlisle
tiny photograph, 
button to large Solway Firth -- Cumbria / -- Courtesy of the Hope and Anchor, Port Carlisle
tiny photograph, 
button to large Solway Firth -- Cumbria / -- Courtesy of the Hope and Anchor, Port Carlisle

hearsay Alexander II King of Scotland crossed the Solway by a 'wath', a ford, in 1216, after a raid into Cumberland. He was caught by a flood tide, and 1900 of his men were drowned.

Jenkins, J Geraint: 1974: Nets and Coracles: David and Charles (Newton Abbot, Devon):: ISBN 0 7153 6546 0

button   Alison's Scar, Solway Firth
button   Bar, Solway Firth
button   Catherine Hole, Solway Firth
button   Dubmill Swap, Solway Firth
button   Dumroof Bank, Solway Firth
button   Easton Marsh, Bowness
button   Ellison Scar, Solway Firth
button   English Channel, Solway Firth
button   Far Sand Bank, Solway Firth
button   Maryport Roads, Solway Firth
button   meeting house, Solway Fisheries
button   Middle Bank, Solway Firth
button   NX84: earthquake 19770521 0037
button   NX94: earthquake 20000911 0321
button   NY04: earthquake 19920627 2306
button   NY04: earthquake 19920628 0239
button   Port Carlisle Lighthouse, Bowness
button   Robin Rigg, Solway Firth
button   Silloth Bank, Solway Firth
button   Silloth Channel, Solway Firth
button   Solway Light Vessel, Solway Firth
button   Solway Viaduct, Bowness
button   Swatchway Channel, Solway Firth
button   Three Fathom Bank, Solway Firth
button   Two Feet Bank, Solway Firth
button   Tyne Solway Canal
button   West Scars, Solway Firth
button   Workington Bank, Solway Firth
button   Workington Channel, Solway Firth

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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©  Martin and Jean Norgate: 2014
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